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Glossary of BRAIN INJ

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Skull
1. Neurocranium 'br box'

2. Facial sk -> bones o nose, mouth orbit
Neurocranium (8 bones)
frontal
2 parietal
2 temporal
occipital
sphenoid
ethmoid
Skull Fractures (4)
1. DEPRESSED FRACTURE - bone depressn

2. LINEAR SKULL FRACTURE (commonest) - 2 lines radiate

3. COMMINUTED - broken sev pieces

4. COUNTERBLOW - fracture @opp side to blow
PTERION
overlies MMA

@Zygometric Arch:
*2 finger breadth sup
*1 thumb breadth post

-> MMA rupture -> epidural hematoma -> untreated? death w/in hrs
MENINGES
1)DURA
2)ARACHNOID
3)PIA
DURA
thick conn tiss

periosteum of skull
ARACHNOID
thin + collagenous

attached to Dura
PIA
thin + collagenous

att to CNS
3 Meningeal Spaces
1) EXTRADURAL - btw cr bones + dura (path)

2) EPIDURAL - btwe parietal and meningeal dura (path)

3) SUBARACH - btw arach + pia (true - filled w CSF)
Dural Septa (reflections)
FALX CEREBRI - sep R+L cerebral hemispheres

TENTORIUM CEREBELI - sep occipital lobe from brstem + cerebellum
Dural Venous Sinuses
receive all venous drainage of bl:

SUP SAG SINUS

TRNSV SINUSES
Arach Villi
outpocketing of arach through Venous Sinus
Blood Source:
MMA
Dural Venous Sinus
Cerebr art/V
Bleeding/Hematoma:
Epidural
Sub/Epi dural
Subarach hmrrg
Herniations
from on intracr compart to another bc dura are tough,
but BR SOFT + SQUISHY
Ventricles + communications
2 lat
(IV foreamen)
3rd V
(cerebral aqueduct)
4th V
Ventricle fn
make CSF (clear, colourless, low pr)

exits via 3 apetures:
2 lat
1 median
Choroid Plx
formed where Ependyma (lines CNS) meets Pia

NO NEURAL TISS INTERFERES

Here, chr epith forms (secretory)

In all 4 ventricles (lat v's make most)
Choroid Epith
Have tight jns

Secrete CSF
Choroid Caps
perm to solutes

Plasma solutes move out and are STOPPED @tight jns

Thus CSF promopted to be actively secreted into ventricles
CSF Circulation
pushed by New CSF:

Exits 4th V

Enters Subarach Space

@ Arach Vili

diffuses (subarach P>venous bl P)
CSF fns
1. decrease wt of CNS ('CNS floats' in CSF) allowing meninges to supp it

2. Regulates ECF of n's

3. 'Spatial Bufferring'
-br box only allows enter when sthing exits
-each HB pumps bl into br
-CSF sloshes in+out of foramen magnum w each HB

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