Glossary of BJU Geography Ch. 3

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Why does latitude affect temperature?
As latitude increases, the sun's rays hit the earth less directly, and temperature goes down.
What causes the changes of seasons?
The tilt of the earth toward or away from the sun and the slant of the sunlight.
What are the boundaries of the Tropics?
The tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn
Do the tropics have four seasons?
The Tropics do not have four seasons because they always get direct sunlight part of the year.
Rotation verses Revolution. They mean basically the same thing...but which term refers to the earth's axis and which term refers to earth's orbit around the sun?
The earth ROTATES on its axis.

The earth's orbit REVOLVES (revolution) around the sun.
What is the circle of illumination?
The half of the earth that is lighted by the sun.
What causes wind?
the movement of air that has been heated by the sun.
How does the coriolis effect change the direction of wind?
The wind appears to move because the earth is moving under it.
Why does the wind on one side of a continent sometimes flow in a different direction from the wind on the other side?
Wind moves in circular patterns over continents. The wind at the edge of these whirling cyclones must flow in opposite directions at the east and west ends of the continent.
Compare and contrast the role of wind and ocean currents in distrubuting heat.
Both wind and currents follow circular patterns.

Currents-- retain heat longer and are guided by the coastline.

Winds -- are influenced by mountains and the rapid heating and cooling of continents.
What is the difference between CONDENSATION and PRECIPITATION?
Condensation - the process of water changing from vapor to liquid.

Precipitation - occurs when the water acutally falls.
Explain how the dew point is related to precipitation?
The dew point (at which water stops evaporating) is the point at which water may fall to the earth (precipitation).
Define the hydrologic cycle.
a water cycle that continually replenishes the soil, plants, lakes and rivers.
** Bonus **
Both sides of mountains on the East Coast of the United States are wet. But the mountains in California are wet on the west side and dry on the east side. Why?

** Hint ** Look at map on pgs 42 and 45.
Prevailing winds drop all their rain on the west side of the California mountains, BUT winds carry ocean water up from the Gulf of Mexico into the interior of the East.
What is the difference between climate nd weather?
Weather - atmospheric conditions of a location at a given time.
(short term conditions that will change.)

Climate - long term condition of an area. (** seaonons ** )
Ocasional variations occur (i.e. record snowfall, rainy spring, etc.)
What does arid mean?
dry, lacking moisture.
What are the four types of moderate climate?
1. humid subtropical (+50 in.)
2. humid continental (sporadic)
3. mediterranean (little)
4. marine west coast (steady rain)

** rainfall ( ) varies significantly in these areas. **
How does altitude affect temperature?
The lapse rate causes temperature to drop 3 1/2 degrees faranheit every 1,000 ft. rise.
** Bonus**
Why are there no moderate climates in the Tropics, even though they receive lots of sun and rain?
The cold air from the poles reaches down into the temperature zones and moderates the climate, BUT this air warms, rises and returns to the poles before it ever reaches the Tropics.
What are the THREE BASIC biomes?
forests, grasslands and wastelands.
Contrast coniferous and deciduous forests?

(Hint: Think of Washington vs. New Jersey woodlands)
Coniferous mostly have needles and are evergreen.

Deciduous lose their leaves and cannot remain in very cold areas as coniferous can.
What are two types of grasslands?

What is the main distinction between them?
(1) tropical and temperate OR savannah and steppe.

(2) Where they are located.
Why is tundra considered a wasteland?
It can support very little vegetation.
What two conditions cause mountain vegetation to vary?
(1) lapse rate (2) orographic precipitation.
** Bonus **
Should every country strive for SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?
Countries should strive to conserve resources whiel still respecting individual liberty.
A pine tree is which of the following: a needle-leaf tree, a broadleaf tree, a conifer, a deciduous, an evergreen.
a needle-leaf, a conifer, an evergreen.
What is permafrost?

In which climate region is it found?
1) The top layer of soil that remins frozen all year.

2) Polar
** BONUS **
What are two main brances of geography?
physical and human geography.
** BONUS **
Explain the difference between latitude and longitude
Latitude - are parallel and circle east to west

Longitude - are NOT parallel and run north to south.
** BONUS **
What two formative events in the earth's history occurred only once and will never occur again?
The Creation and the world-wide Flood.

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