Glossary of BIO Chap 5

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What is a macromolecule
a molecule that consists of many smaller molecules
what is a polymer
a polymer cnsists of many similar or identical monomers
What is a monomer? Give examples of commom organic polymers
the building block for polymers. ex: carbs, proteins and nucleic acids
What is a carbohydrate
a sugar
What is the atomic composition of all monosaccharides and what functional groups are present?
A monosaccharides is a multiple of CH2O. There are carbonyls and hydroxls present
What are the functions of polysacchrides.
How can a simple chain of carbon atoms with H, OH and O groups provide structural support
The molecules are ring shaped with glycosidic links
What is the most abundant organic compound on earth
cellulose-it helps aid in digestion by causeing the intestinal tract to secrete mucus which aides in the passage of food
What is a lipid
a hydrophobic molecule. Steriods of phosolipids
Describe the structure of triglycerides
they consists of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
How do the carbon to carbon bonds affect fats
When there are no double bonds the fat is considered saturated. When they are double bonds the fat is considered non saturated. Saturated fats are bad for humans and can cause heart disease.
What is the difference between triglycerides and phospholipids in structural terms
Triglycerides have 3 fatty acids
Phospholipids have 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
Why are phospholipids amphipathec and what effect does that have on their distribution in water
the tails are hydrophobic and are no water soluble, the phosphate groups are hydrophollic
Describe steroids
They have four fused rings and are lipids
Describe the function of cholesterol
produces hormones such as sex hormones. Too much can be linked to arthersclerosis
What is the difference between a protein and a polypeptide
a protein is made of one or more polypeptide. A polypeptide is a polymer of an amino acid.
What are the six functions of a protein
Storage-Store amino acids
Structural-provide support-hair, muscle
transport-hemoglobin transports oxygen
hormonal-regulates activity
receptor-response to stimuli
defensive-protect against disease
Describethe structural characteristics that make an amino acid
and amino group and a carboxyl group
Describe the chemical charactertics of the side goup of each amino acid fiven its structure
**if there is a carboxyl in the side group, the amino acid is acidic
** If there are amino goups present, it is basic
**Becasue thy are charged, they are hydrophillic
What type of bond links amino acids of a polypeptide. How are they formed?
covalent called a peptide bond. They are joined by a dehydration reaction
Why is the structure of a protein so important
the structure determines how it works. It determines how it recognizes and binds to other molecules
What is the primary structure of a polypeptide
the is where the sequence of amino acids is determined
What is the potential affect of altering the primary structure of a polypeptide
Can cause malfunctions such as in hemoglobin (sickle cell anemia)
What is the secondary protein structure
This refers to the coils and folds that are formed by the polypeptide shains. The cols are caused by H-bonding
What are alpho helixes
a delicate coil held together by H-bonding b/w every fourth amino acid
What are beta pleated sheets
two or more areas of the polypeptide chain that lie parallel to each other
What types of bonds are involved in the secondary structure and what parts of the amino acids are involved?
Hydrogen bonds. Only the atoms of the backbone are involved not the amino acid side chain (r-Group)
Which is more stable: primary or secondary?
Primary becuase covalent bonds are present.
Define tertiary protein structure?
This involves irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, H-bonds and disulfide bridges.
What types of bonds are involved in tertiary structure and what parts of the amino acids are involved?
H-bonds, ionic bonds and disulfide bridges.
What is a disulfide bridge
strong convalent bond formed where two cysteine monomers (amino acids with sulfhydryl groups on their side chains) are brought close together by the folding of a protein
What happens to the tertiary structure of a protein if the solution pH were changed from 7 to 3?
The protein may unravel and lose its native confomation. This is denaturation.
What determines the primary structure of a protein
Define quaternary structure
When a protein consists of two or more polypeptides the overall protein structure that reults from the aggregation of the polypeptide subunits is the quaternary structure
Describe the monomer of nucleic acids
they are nucleotides
What are the two types of nucleic acids and what functions do they perform?
DNA: the genetic material inherited from parents

RNA: conveys the DNA (genetic instructions for building proteins) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

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