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Glossary of BIO 2870: Anatomy and Physiology

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Superior
Upper, above, or closer to the head
Inferior
Lower, below, or towards the feet
Anterior
Located on, towards, or near the front
Ventral
Relating to, situated on, or close to the anterior; lower surface
Posterior
Located on, towards, or near the rear
Dorsal
Relating to, situated on, or close to the posterior; upper surface
Medial
Relating to, situated in, or extending toward the middle
Lateral
Relating to or situated at or on the side; extending away from the median plane of the body
Proximal
Nearer to a point of reference such as an origin, a point of attachment, or the midline of the body
Distal
Further away from a point of reference such as an origin, a point of attachment, or the midline of the body
Superficial
Of, affecting, or being on or near the surface
Peripheral
Of or relating to the surface or outer part of a body or organ; external
Cortex
The outer layer of an internal organ or body structure
Medulla
The inner layer of an internal organ or body structure
Deep
Extending far inward from an outer surface or outer part of a body or organ; internal
Cranial
Towards the head
Caudal
Away from the head
Coronal Plane
A verticle plane running from side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions; Frontal Plane
Sagittal Plane
A verticle plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides; Lateral Plane
Axial Plane
A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts;Transverse Plane
Median plane
Sagittal plane through the midline of the body; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left halves

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