Glossary of BIO 1510: Lecture Exam 4-2: 52

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2 Types of Behavior
What major kingdom exhibits behavior?
Nonassociative Learning
Does not require animal to form an association between 2 stimuli OR between a stimulus & a response
Name 1 example of nonassociative learning.
decrease in response to a stimulus that has no positive or negative consequences
Learning not to respond to a stimulus
Associative Learning
Association between two stimuli OR a stimulus & a response that causes behavior to be conditioned (modified)
Name 2 example of associative learning.
Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning

Operant Conditioning
Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning
paired presentation of two stimuli causes animal to associate the two

Dog salivates at the sound of a bell
Operant Conditioning:
Operant Conditioning: animal learns to associate a behavior with a reward or punishment

Bird & monarch butterfly; frog & bee; caged rat with food lever
Process early in development where an animal forms social attachments or preferences that will influence later behavior
Filial imprinting
social attachments between parents & offspring

Ex: geese “imprint” the first object they see after hatching
Sexual imprinting
individual learns to direct its sexual behavior at members of its own species

Some birds raised by parents of a different species attempt to breed with members of their parents’ species
2 types of Behavioral Rhythms
Endogenous rhythms
Exogenous rhythms
Endogenous rhythms
internal biological “clocks” (sometimes controlled by specific genes)
Exogenous rhythms
controlled by external stimuli, usually light
Example of Human exogenus biological rhythm.
Humans: light/dark circadian (24hr) rhythms regulate secretion of the hormone melatonin
- Melatonin levels decrease in light; increase in dark
- Affect sleep/wake cycles (jet lag)
- Affect reproductive physiology in species with distinct breeding seasons
Chemical messengers, used for communication between individuals, that can influence behavior
Uses of Pheromones
*Many used to facilitate reproduction (usually by attracting mates)
- Insects; fish; mammals
- Humans: egg produces a chemical attractant to communicate with sperm
Alarm pheromones
signal “attack” in bees, ants
Trail pheromones
used by ants to lead others to food source
Bee Waggle
The way one scout bees tells the others where a food supply is located.

angle points to direction
distance is given by rate of waggle (faster = closer)
Define cognition
ability to problem solve
Difference between pheromone and hormone
pheromone are chemical messengers transmitted between two individuals

hormone are chemical messenger transmitted within an individiual
Behavioral Ecology
Study of how natural selection shapes behavior

Considers the adaptive significance of behavior
Or how behavior increases survival & reproduction
the genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations
Relative fitness
fitness of one individual compared to other individuals in the population
Why does Natural selection favors foraging behavior
It maximizes the amount of energy gained per unit time spent foraging

Increased energy usually results in increased reproductive success
Behavior that maximizes fitness is a trade off between...
obtaining the most energy and being eaten.

Sometimes the behavior that maximizes energy intake is not the one that minimizes predation risk
Territorial Behavior
Individuals maintain exclusive use of an area that contains some limiting resource
Food, foraging ground, potential mates
What are three costs of territorial behavior?
Energetically expensive
Aggression can lead to injury
Advertisement to predators
What animals are most sucessful at survival and reproduction?
Animals that gain more energy in resources than they lose in behavior

**The goal of all animals is to maximize their fitness**
Parental investment
the contributions each sex makes in producing & rearing offspring
Differences between male and female parental investment:
Usually higher in females (eggs are much larger than sperm; gestation; lactation **these are biological reasons)

Reproduction is relatively cheap for males – they can best increase their fitness by mating with as many females as possible

Females have an incentive to be choosy
Mate Choice
females tend to evaluate a male’s quality before deciding to mate

When parental investment is equal, mate choice is equal
How do males best maximize their fitness?
by mating with as many females as possible.
Sexual Selection
A type of differential reproduction that results from variable success in obtaining mates

By evaluating & selecting mates with superior qualities, an animal can increase its reproductive success
Two types of sexual selection
Intrasexual selection
usually males competing with each other for females
Few males mate, and most males don’t

Evolution of structures for fighting
Horns, antlers, large canine teeth

Selection favors any trait that confers greater ability to outcompete other males
Sexual dimorphism
in most species males are larger than females

a result of intrasexual selection
Intersexual selection
usually females can be “choosy” with their males

Females usually choose large and/or colorful males
- Males that live longer have a good genetic makeup
- Healthy males are less likely to be carrying disease
When parental investment is equal...

When males are territorial...
When parental investment is equal, females choose males that can provide the best care

When males are territorial, females get more food, better nesting sites, & predator refuges
Handicap Hypothesis
Male peacocks are inhibited by their large tails and are easy prey, yet females still mate w/ them

Even w/ handicap, only genetically superior males can survive regardless
Three Mating Systems

Mating systems represent reproductive adaptations to environmental conditions
Monogamy: one male / one female
- Birds & mammals

Polygeny: one male / many females
- Most animals

Polyandry: one female / many males
- Spotted sandpipers
Some fish species have 2 types of males
large & territorial males
- females choose these

Small “sneaky” males

no spectrum of sizes
Adultery leads to...
more genetic diversity
Behavior that increases the fitness of the recipient while reducing the fitness of the altruistic individual

Self-sacrifice for the benefit of others

Examples: mammalian alarm calls; bird “helpers at the nest”; lioness that nurses other cubs
Why help others at a cost to oneself?
Most behaviors are not truly “altruistic” – most expect reciprocity

Kin selection: selection favoring relatives (sharing genes with family therefore your genes will pass on through them)

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