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Glossary of BIO 1510: Lab Exam 2-4: Lab 25

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root pressure
water is forced up plant as a result of water moving accross the osmotic gradient from the soil to the roots
stomata
small openings in leaves for gas exchange but water also escapes
primary growth
increases length of plant at tip of stems, roots, branches
secondary growth
increases girth by adding cells to plant body
cambiums
meristem tissue located in roots and stems
2 types of cambiums
vascular- beneath bark which provides secondary phloem and xylem

cork - produces bark or periderm
Roots: Taproot System
a simple long conical root with many lateral branches, root hairs

gymnosperms and dicots
ex. carrot
Roots: Fibrous System
complex network

monocots
ex. grasses
Roots: Adventitious Roots
lateral extensions of primary roots which arise at the bottom of the stem
Roots: Caspian Strip
cell walls of endodermis and suberin coating whih creates a water impermeable barrier

gives cells control of what enters into vascular tissues
Roots: Root Hairs
grow out from the epidermis and capture previously untapped water and mineral resources of the soil

epidermal issues (trichomes) that are specialized for absobing water and dissolved minerals
Monocot VS. Dicot Roots
monocot has no vascular cambium and no secondary vascular tissues

monocot has a ring of vascular tissues around pith, dicots have an X like clump in the center of the stele
The differences between herbaceous dicots and wood dicots:
woody dicots have extensive secondary growth where herbaceous are limited

woody dicots have cork cambiums which produce bark
Explain in detail what would happen to a tree stripped of its bark:
The bark of a woody plant consists of all the layers external to vascular cambium and thus i ncludes the phloem and the components of the periderm.

Bark provides protections from herbivores, insects, fungus and other predators.

Because it contains the phloem, the tree would be unable to transfer sugars from the photosynthetic portions of the tree to other non-sugar producing areas (stem, roots). These parts would die.

If the roots die, then the tree would eventually run out of water, ending photosynthesis killing the entire tree.
Monocot VS. Dicot Stems
Dicot Stems have vascular bundles around the outer edge. They have collenchyma sells in the corners for support.

Monocot stems have their vascular bendles scattered through out the stem. There is no vascular cambium.

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