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Glossary of BIO 101 Final Exam BGSU

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What are Nematocysts?
-Stinging cells, unique to corals andtheir relatives (jellyfish, anemones)
Reefs are stratified
-Tidal variations
-From low tide to >50 M
-Light variations
-Maximum diversity~20m
what are the layers of the rainforest?
-Emergent 100 ft above forest
-Canopy
-Understory or lower canopy
-Forest Floor
What are the nine types of energy used on Earth?
Oil
Coal
Natural Gas
Wood
Hydroelectric
Wind
Waste Geothermal
Solar
Reef Builders are made of:
-Corals secrete a skeleton made of calcium carbonate
-Bulk of reef is dead skeletons (centuries old)
-Other organisms contribute to reef building
--red algae
--Mollusks
Three types of reefs:
-fringing reef (shore reef)
-Barrier reefs
-Atoll reefs
Reasons for rainforest destrucion
-Conversion to pasture
-Plantation of crops
-Tropical hardwoods
-foold production
-Dams
-mines
-Inequitable land distribution
Biodiversity cont'
Economic benefits
-Environment provides $33 trillion to global economy
-Biodiversity in US accounts for $300 billion
-Visitors to wildlife refuges alone in US ecntributed $401 million to local economies
-Polluted water and air increase illness and costs
Why save forests?
-Source of food
-Source of new food
-Source of genes for biotechnology
-source of chemicals
-Reduce emigration
-Decrease CO2 effect
-Reduce climatic change
-protect indigenous people
Major reductions in coral reefs:
Philippines--Hammer and chisel
Indonesia--dunamiting (blast fishing)
Caribbean--Anchors, Monofilament, tourism, sewage
Asia--poisoning (cyanide), shelling
Living reefs made up of corals
-Small, colonial animals
-Tentacles and stinging cells
-Feed on zooplanktion
-Partially heterotrophic
-Partially autotrophic
A society is sustainable if present and future generations of humans:
-Are healthy and can meet their basic needs
-Have fair and equitable access to earth's resources
-Have a decent quality of life
-Celebrate cultural diversity
-Restore and preserve the biologically diverse econsystems on which we all depend
coral Reefs--Endangered ecosystems
-Oil spills
-Ship damage
-Tourism
-Storms
-Climate
Activities are not sustainable when they:
-Require continual inputs of non-renewable resources
-use renewable resources faster than their rate of renewal
-Cause cumulative degradation of the environment
-Require resources in quantities that undermine other people's well-being
-Lead to the extinction of other life forms
What is the tragedy of the commons
Tragedy of the commons is when a tragedy occurs because of an abuse by one person in the commons
-Farmer/pasture example
What are some ways to conserve energy?
reduce waste
carry out present activities more efficiently
Curtail Activities
Implement three public policies
Info or exhortation
regulation
financial incentives or disincentives
Where are rainforests found?
-Central and South America
-Africa
-Indo-Malaysia
What are the paths to Sustainability?
Population control
conserve energy
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
preserve resource base
manage human Settlements
Sustainable Businesses
-Replace nationally and internationally produced items with local and regional products
-Take responsibility for effects on the natural world
-Do not require exotic sources of capital
-Engage in production processes that are human, worthy, dignified, and satisfying
-Create objects of durability and long-term utility whose ultimate use of disposition will not be harmful to future generations
-change consumers to customers through education
What is Sustainability?
Sustainability is an economic state where the demands placed on the environment by people and commerce can be met without reducing the capacity of the environment to provide for future generations.
What is the world's largest flower?
Rafflesia in the Indonesian rainforest with and odor like rotting flesh to attract insects
Some benifits to solar energy are:
independence
Relative small size
Politically invulnerable
most solar panels used for heating hot water and swimming pools
Active solar
Passive solar
What is biodiversity?
-preservation of species
-Preservation of genes, gene combos, gene pools
-preservation of habitat, communities, ecosystems
-Preservation of ecological interatctions
--Food webs
--Predator/prey
--Parasitism
--Mutualisms
-preservation of evolutionary processes
-Preservation of global climate
How many species of organisms are there on the planet?
an estimation of 20-30 million
Biodiversity is important becasue of five things they are:
Ecosystem services
-transger of energy
-storage, release and distribution of carbon
-Water cycle
-oxygen cycle
The components of sustainability are:
-Economic golden rule
-Restorative economy
-Leave the world a better place than you found it
-Do not harm life or the environment
-Make amends if you do
name two biodiveristy threats
-Population growth and resource consumption
-Global warming
Where do you find the greatest diversity of life on earth?
-Troical frests
-coral reefs
-Estuaries
-Tropical rivers and lakes
-Soils
-Inshore marine environments
Name four more biodiversity threats
-Habitat conversion and sprawl
-Exotic and invasive species
-Over hunting and comercial explotation
-Environmental degradation

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