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Glossary of BIO 101 Chapter 4 Cell Structure

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CELL THEORY
concept that all organisms are composed of cells & cells come only from pre-existing cells
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
simple cell, lacks membrane bound nucleus
Domain Bacteria
Domain Archea
CELL ENVELOPE
includes the plasma membrane, cell wall & glycocalyx
PLASMA MEMBRANE
regulates the entrance & exit of substances into cytoplasm
MESOSOMES
pouches where enzymes attach
CELL WALL
Maintains the shape
GLYCOCOLYX
layer of polysaccharides on outside of cell wall
CYTOPLASM
semifluid solution encased by plasma membrance. Full of enzymes.
NUCLEOID
single chromosone, the DNA of the bacteria
EUKARYOTIC CELL
have membrane bound nucleus. Members of Domain Eukarya; protists, fungi, plants animals
ORGANELLES
membranous structure in the cytoplasm
CYTOSKELETON
protein fibers that maintain shape of cell & movement of organelles
NUCLEUS
Center of Eukaryotic cell. contains chromosones & controls structure and function of cell.
RIBOSOMES
In both prokaryotes & eukaryotes. Contains proteins & RNA
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
ER. system of sacs & channels in cytoplasm
ROUGH ER
studded with ribosomes and it synthesizes proteins
SMOOTH ER
no attached ribosomes, synthesizes lipids
GOLGI APPARATUS
stack (like pancakes) of sacs. Sorts and packages proteins & lipids to depart.
LYSOSOMES
vesicles produced by the Golgi App and have digestive enzymes
PEROXISOMES
similar to Lysosomes, they contain enzymes
VACUOLES
sacs larger than vesicles. store substances
CHLOROPLASTS
organelle that uses solar energy to synthesize carbohydrates
MITOCHONDRIA
powerhouse of the cell. They produce ATP

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