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Glossary of BIO 101 Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry

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ACID
substance that dissociates in water- releases hydrogen
ATOM
smallest unit of an element. composed of subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons)
ATOMIC NUMBER
number of protons within the nucleus of an atom
BASE
substances that take up hydrogen ions
BUFFER
keeps pH in normal limits
COMPOUND
when matter is formed of more than one type of atom
COVALENT BOND
chemical bond in which atoms share on pair of electrons. Shells overlap to share electrons & it is very strong. There are single, dbl, and triple covalent bonds.
ELECTRON
negative subatomic particle moving energy around nucleus of an atom
ELECTRONEGATIVITY
attraction of an atom for electrons in covalent bond
ELECTRON SHELLS
energy levels in atoms
ELEMENT
basic substance of matter
HYDROGEN BOND
The weak attraction between pos and neg charged ends of polar molecules. Easily broken, weaker.
HYDROGEN
ion (H+)
HYDROPHYLLIC
molecules that attract water
HYROPHOBIC
molecules that repel water
HYDROXIDE ION
lost electron that is positively charged
ION
any atom with a number of electrons that is different from its number of protons
IONIC BOND
Transfer (back and forth) of electrons from one atom to another.
ISOTOPE
atoms of the same element, but have different # of neutrons
MASS NUMBER
presence of certain particles
MATTER
anything that takes up space and has mass. It is made up of elements.
MOLECULE
Smallest possible unit of a compound. It is formed by bonding of two or more atoms.
NEUTRON
neutral subatomic particle
NONPOLAR COVALENT BOND
when atom bond is equal
OCTET RULE
2 - 8 rule of electrons in the shell
ORBITAL
volume of space where electron is found
pH SCALE
measurement scale for Hydrogen atoms in fluid

1 is highest (acidic)
14 is lowest (alkaline)
POLAR COVALENT BOND
sharing of electrons
PROTON
positively charged subatomic particle in nucleus
SALT
Sodium chloride
SOLUTE
disolved substances in solution
SOLUTION
fluid
TRACER
detector
HOW MANY NATURALLY OCCURING TYPES OF MATTER ARE THERE?
92 (Periodic Table)
What is the most common ELEMENT on Earth?
Iron
What are the 3 states of MATTER?
Solid, liquid, gass
NAME THE 3 SUBATOMIC PARTICLES FOUND IN AN ATOM
Protons + (stationary)
Neutrons - (stationary no charge)
Electrons - (always moving, no mass no charge)
MATTER IS NOT STILL
TRUE OR FALSE?
TRUE. Matter is always moving and orbiting
NUCLEUS
center of the atom. made up of protons and neutrons.
NIELS BOHR
Physicist that devised Octet Rule. Innermost shell holds 2 electrons, all others hold up to 8
ATOMS LIKE TO BE STABLE
TRUE OR FALSE?
TRUE. THey like to be balanced and stable and are most stable when outer shell is full.
NAME THE SIX MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENTS
CHONPS
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Sulfur
PLANTS (Autotropes) USE COVALENT BONDS TO STORE ENERGY. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE. Convert CO2 into food and store it
NAME FOUR TYPES OF BONDS
Covalent - very strong
Ionic-
Molecular-
Hydrogen- weak, it is the molecular "stickiness"
WATER
A polar molecule. The fluid most necessary for life. Almost no biological processes happen in water.
PHSYICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER
1)Freezing point: liquid to solid 0 degrees C

2) Boiling point: liquid to gas. 100 degrees C
BOTH LIVING AND NONLIVING THINGS ARE COMPOSED OF MATTER/ELEMENTS. TRUE OR FALSE?
TRUE. Most common are CHONPS
HOW DO IONS FORM?
When atoms lose or gain one or more electrons to complete the outer shell

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