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Glossary of BIO 101 Chapter 1 Life

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ADAPTATION
modifications or changes in an organism so that it improves in relation to its environment
ANIMAL
A multicellular organism of the kingdom Animalia
BINOMAL NAME
The 'scientific' name given to each organism. Two latin names.
BIODIVERSITY
The number and variety of species found in an ecosystem.
BIOLOGY
Scientific study of life
BIOSPHERE
The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which The part of the earth and its Atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life.
CELL
The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of nuclei, cytoplasm, surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane
CLASS
A taxonomic category ranking below a phylum or division and above an order.
COMMUNITY
The area or location in which a group lives.
CONCLUSION
Whether or not the results of an experiment fit hypothesis
CONTROL
Standard against which results of an experiment are checked
DATA
Facts or information collected through observation
DEDUCTIVE REASONING
"if-then" logic to test a hypothesis. Process of reaching a conclusion.
DEPENDANT VARIABLE
result or change with experiment variable (the variable you use to compare to others)
DOMAIN
Largest of Taxonomy catagories used to group species
DOMAIN ARCHAEA
First domain of Life. Contains prokaryotic cells & can live in extreme habitats
DOMAIN BACTERIA
Second domain of Life. Contains prokaryotic cells that differ from Archaea because they have their own unique genetic characteristics.
DOMAIN EUKARYA
Third domain of Life. Organisms that have eukaryotic cells (nucleus & membrane) and classified into the kingdoms of Protista, Fungi Plantae, and Animalia.
ECOSYSTEM
Biological community characterized by a flow of energy and inorganic nutrients.
ENERGY
Capacity to do work and bring about change; different varities
EVOLUTION
Descent of organisms from common ancestors with changes over time that make them more suitable for environment.
EXPERIMENT
Testing a hypothesis
EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE
Component being tested
EXTINCTION
death of a species
FAMILY
One of the Taxonomy catagories used to group a species
FUNGUS
decomposer. Molds, mildews, mushrooms
GENE
Unit of heredity containing chromosones
GENUS
One of the Taxonomy catagories used to group a species. Those most closely related.
HOMEOSTASIS
Maintenance of internal conditions in a cell. Self-regulating.
HYPOTHESIS
a statement or prediction based on your observation that offers explanations for something that happens.
INDUCTIVE REASONING
Use creative thinking to combine facts.
KINGDOM
Largest classification. These species share general characteristics.
LAW
Theory accepted by majority of scientists
METABOLISM
All the chemical reactions that occur during growth & repair in a cell.
MODEL
a Hypothesis that describes how process should be carried out.
MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM
Organism composed of many cells, organized tissues and organs can be present
NATURAL SELECTION
Evolution of organisms most fit to reproduce
OBSERVATION
Gather information thru senses
ORDER
Classification catagory
PHENOMENON
natural event
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
process that transforms solar energy into nutrients
PHYLUM
Classification catagory
PLANT
makes its food from energy collected from sun and brings energy to the ecosystem.
POPULATION
Members of a species
PREDICTION
Step of the scientific process that supports the hypothesis
PRINCIPLE
Theory that is generally accepted by a number of scientists. Also called LAW
PROTIST
Single cell organism
REPRODUCE
Make another organism like itself
SCIENTIFIC PROCESS
1) Observation
2) Formulate Hypothesis
3) Collect data
4) Analyze data & reformulate hypothesis
SCIENTIFIC THEORY
Concept supported by observation and experiments.
SPECIES
Smallest class of Taxonomy and species that share many characteristics
TAXONOMY
Identifying and classifying organisms according to specific rules
CARL VON LINNE
Devised giving two latin names to each organism
SPECIFIC EPITHET
Binomal names--two part latin names given to organisms. When you write these you capitolize the first name and italicize or underline both names.
WHAT IS SCIENCE?
Study of the natural universe and all it entails. A way of observing & learning about nature.
SCIENCE IS ALWAYS FACTUAL?
TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE. Science will not always remain factual, because nothing is final and there are always new discoveries and revisions.
THEORY
a hypothesis that is supported by overwhelming evidence and can be explained and used to make new predictions
A HYPOTHESIS MUST BE A FALSIFIABLE STATEMENT.
TRUE OR FALSE?
TRUE. It is tenative; open to test.
HETEROTROPY
living things that eat other things. Must take in organic food.
AUTOTROPHY
Organism that captures energy from inorganic nutrients.
i.e. plants
CARNIVORE
Meat eater
HERBIVORE
Plant eater
OMNIVORE
Eats both meat & plants
What 4 traits do LIVING THINGS posses?
1) Consume energy
2) Reproduce & Develop
3) Have cells
4) Respond to their environment (they adapt)
LIST THE 5 KINGDOMS
1) domain Monera (bacteria)
2) domain Protista (unicellular)
3) domain Fungi (molds, mildew, mushrooms)
4) domain Plantae
5) domain Animalia
CHARACTERISTICS THAT DEFINE LIFE
1) organized
2) needs outside source of materials & energy
3) responds to external stimuli
4) reproduces & develops
5) adaptations
HOW BIOSPHERE IS ORGANIZED
ecosystem with nutrients and energy
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
1) given a binominal name
2) listed from general to specific catagories
3) belong to one of the 3 domains
What are the 7 catagories we use to CLASSIFY organisms?
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
THERE ARE ONLY 5 KINGDOMS?
TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE. The 5 Kingdom system is a hypothesis--there are many more now.

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