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Glossary of BIO 101 Ch 9 - 16

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Stages of Cell Cycle

Late Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
INTERPHASE
Cells have 2 copies of each chromosome. 1 pair of little chromosones, 1 pair of big chromosomes.
DNA replication occurs
PROPHASE
First set of divisions, chromosomes condense, spindle forms. Chromosones are getting ready to move around.
METAPHASE
Chromosones align along equator of cell. No nucleus, spindle fills entire cells to spread out genetic materials
ANAPHASE
Sister Chromatids (tetrads) separate to opposite poles of cell. Cell starts to elongate.
TELOPHASE
Nuclear membranes assemble around 2 daughter nuclei. Chromosones decondense. Spindle disappears. Now a Haploid
DIPLOID
2 copies of each chromosone. Ex: skin and muscle cells.
HAPLOID
1 copy of each chromosone. Ex: sperm and eggs
MITOSIS
Cell division process which produces 2 daughter cells. Make a copy, duplicate, replicate.
During Mitosis is there a change in genetic content?
NO. Parent cells and daughter cells are both diploid.
Organisms use Mitosis for what purpose?
Growth and Repair
Mitosis is the only process where you can make an exact copy. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE.
TETRIDES
X shaped chromatids
CYTOKINESIS
Divison of the cytoplasm into two cells. NOT A STAGE--an event that marks the end of telophase.
Does the cell cycle end with TELOPHASE?
No. After the cells divide they resume function or enter into another interphase division cycle.
The CELL CYCLE is highly regulated. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE.
APOPTOSIS
mediated "cell death". Cells are programmed to die. Ex: sunburn (genetic material is damaged) cells die & won't divide.
Why are genes variated/flexible?
Helps us adapt to environment and keeps us from being wiped out by epidemics, etc.
MEIOSIS
Cell division process which produces FOUR daughter cells. It cuts chromosone count in half and gives 1/2 to each to make a whole.
Does genetic content change in MEIOSIS?
Yes. Parent cells are diploid and daughter cells are haploid.
Organisms use meiosis for...
Making sperm & eggs
MEIOSIS I stages
Prophase I (diploid)
Metaphase I (diploid)
Anaphase I (diploid)
Telophase I (haploid) Result=2 haploid daughter cells
MEIOSIS II stages
Prophase II (haploid)
Metaphase II (haploid)
Anaphase II (haploid)
Telophase II (haploid)
Result= 4 nonidentical haploid daughter cells
Goal of MEIOSIS I
Reduce chromosones number from 2 to 1. End up with sperm/egg cells.
Goal of MEIOSIS II
Make 4 haploid daughter cells
MEIOSIS I- Prophase I
Early diploid. Duplicate DNA and check tetrads. Spindle fibers appear.

Late diploid. Create bivalent.
BIVALENT
2 Tetrads held together, promotes "Crossing Over" gene swapping.
MEIOSIS I- Metaphase I
diploid. Spindle fibers and chromosones ine up along equator.
MEIOSIS I- Anaphase I
diploid. starting to elongate.
MEIOSIS I- Telophase I
diploid. 2 nuclear envelopes with chromosones in each.
Independant Assortment Rule
No reason to believe each tetrad goes in one direction. They are independant. You can't predict where it will end.
MEIOSIS II- Prophase II
haploid. Each chromosonally distinct (a mix of chromosones)

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