Glossary of BIOCHEM: Review of Gen Chem and Cellular biology
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- The bioelements are
- C, H, N, O, P, S, Ca,
Na, Mg, K, Cl... B, Pt, Li
- why is it that most on biological molecules are carbon based
- the same reason nature makes most molecules organic compounds. The bond energies of Carbon with anyother element differs slightly from 90 kcal/mol and therefore there is a minimal energy gradient to overcome.
- The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells
- Cell wall
- The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
- cell membrane
- The fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, cytoplasmic components.
- The part of a bacterium or virus that contains nucleic acid and is analogous in function to the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
- A minute round particle composed of RNA and protein that is found in the cytoplasm of living cells and serves as the site of assembly for polypeptides encoded by messenger RNA.
- A cellular or cytoplasmic particle, especially one that stains readily.
- storage granules
- The internal framework of a cell, composed largely of actin filaments and microtubules.
- A long, threadlike appendage, especially a whiplike extension of certain cells or unicellular organisms that functions as an organ of locomotion.
- A hair or hairlike structure, especially on the surface of a cell or microorganism.
- What is the bond angle of water?
- How does the regiochemistry of water effect hydrogen bonding?
- Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds but are strongest when they are completely linear. App. 19 kcal/mol.
- The four colligative properties of any solvent (water):
- with impurities in solvent:
1.) F.P goes down
2.) B.P goes up
3.) Lower Vapor pressure
4.) Lower Osmotic Pressure
- What is the effect of Water's dielectric constants
- Water has the highest dielectric constant of any solvent and THEREFORE makes it a great insulator.
- What from a biochemistry standpoint is so important about water's dielectric constant?
- All cells are in aqueous environments and therefore allow oppositely charged proteins to stay intact. Outside the cell, they break apart because of their regions of dipoles.
- Brønsted argued that all acid-base reactions involve the transfer of an H+ ion, or proton. Water reacts with itself, for example, by transferring an H+ ion from one molecule to another to form an H3O+ ion and an OH- ion.
- Bronsted Lowry Acids and bases
- Molecules that give off H+
- Bronsted Acids
- Molecules that are proton acceptors
- Bronsted bases
- An electron pair acceptor is a
- Lewis Acid
- An electron pair donor is a
- Lewis base
- What does neutrality mean or Keq mean in chemistry?
- NOT pH= 7. Neutrality is where the concentration of anions is equal to that of cations (H+ and OH-)
- The pKw of water is accepted to be.... what is it dependent on... If the temperature was raised how would you expect the pkw to change?
pkW goes down
- Any substance (even HCl) is a good buffer where?
- within 1 pH unit of its pkA.
- Proteins are made up of... which are ampholytes which means...
- Amino acids; they have both acidic and basic properties.
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