Glossary of Avoidant Attachment

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clear-cut attachment phase
6 months - 3 years
-clear preference for parents and siblings
-show distress when parents leave and want them to come back (seperation anxiety)
-look at parents when strangers come (stranger anxiety)
Goal Corrected System
3 years and up
- learn to cope w/ separation and stranger anxiety
-bed-time routine can be very important
-as they get older kids get more comfortable with separation
-also more secure about relationship with parents
Quality of attachment: measureing strength of attachment
Mary Ainsworth and strange situation task
-4 primary attachment styles
-secure attachment
-avoidant attachment
-resistant/amvivalent attachment
-disorganized attachment
bond that develops between a chil and anohter person characterized by mutual affection and a desire to be physically close
love is attatchment
Critical Aspect: infant will attach to whoever responds appropriatly to their needs-babies can attach to additional people or alternative people: concentration camp children - children will usually attach to a wide variety of people but have a primary attachment
Ethological Theory of Attatchment
Developed by John Bowlby in 1969
attachment is initiated by pre-programmed behaviors-reflexes (sucking, smiling, crying, rooting etc.)
it is maintained by enviornmental events (closeness, comfort)
Phases of Attachment
occurs in 4 phases
Pre-attachment (birth-6 weeks)
attachment in the making (6wks-6mos)
clear cut attachment (6mos-3years)
goal corrected system (3yrs-up)
birth - 6 weeks
reflexes stuff is going on
causes caregivers to be close
attachment in the making
6 weeks - 6 months
-infants are discriminating between who they want to come to them
-infants still don't show distress when parents leave or strangers come
secure attachment
-will get distresed when alone with stranger, more distressed when left alone, accept a little comfort from stranger, when parents come back child wants to be held for a little bit then calm down
avoidant attachment
-hardly look at parents, explore right away, don't pay attention to stranger, no stranger or separaton anxiety, don't want comfort from parents -- run, hide, ignore
Resistant/ambivalent attachement
-go ballistic when parents leave, will hit, kick bite
-when parents come back they do a pick me up i hate you thing
-very angry
Disorganized attachment
-confused when parents leave, no real stranger anxiety
-when parent picks them up they go limp and have confused look in their eyes
-seem to have no idea how to cope with separation anxiety
Common Patterns in Development of Emotions and the self
-emotional development in infants
-emotional development in toddlers
-developmet of self-awareness: me vs. you
-self awareness and self-consciousness
Emotional Development in Infants
-1st emotion (w'in hours) : distress
- by 4-7 mos. -begin to see anger
-1st days of life: half-smile- more to do w/ stress relief than to see you
-by 6 wks.: social smile-smiling because they recognize you and are happy to see you
-by 3-4 mos.: see laughter-get sense of humor--earliest laughter and anger is due to having or losing control over an object
Emotional Development in Toddlers
-anger intensifies by age 2
-toddlers also get better at handling it-extremely important
-take action (climb out of playpen)
-get help (point to an object)
-soothe selves (look away, suck thumb)
-smiling and laughter get more selective by 12 mos. of age
Development of self-awareness
the awareness of me vs. you
-going on at the same time as emotional development
-before age 1 most infants do not have a sense of where my body ends and yours begins
-by 15-24 mos. most kids recognize themselves as seperate
-- experiment: mirror and rouge task
-before 15 mos they reach at mirror to touch themselves
-about 15 mos. they look in mirror see mark, laugh, wipe it off their faces
Self awareness and self consciousness
-only if self awareness you see:
-embarrassment if given big praise (hide face, look away and smile)
-guilt: children may show distress or anxiety at a misdeed
-pride at a misdeed: defying a rule
How does a child's description of self and a childs self-esteem change from preschool through the teen years?
-by age 2, use of personal pronouns (i, me, my)
-preschoolers dwell on observable physical characteristics, physical activities, accomplishments, and their preferences
-very few use psychoanalytical traits to describe themselves
-by age 8, children begin to define themselves as part of social units, thier self-descriptions are filled with personality traits, use social comparisson
-self esteem : preschoolers use only 2 dimensions: competense and personal
-by elementary school they have 5: schoolastic competence, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, athletic competence, and physical appearance
Different types of play in early childhood
-2-3mos old will watch and smile at other babies
-onlooker play
-solitary play
-parallel play
-simple social play
-cooperative play
Onlooker Play
child is watching other kids but not really playing with them
solitary play
not interacting or showing interest in playing with others
Parallel play
2 or more kids sit next to each other and do similar things but not really playing together- still watching each other
simple social play
do similar activities
cooperative play
pretend play starts, simple cooperating with eachother
-around age 5 kids begin rule based play
Friendships Develop in 3 Phases
-phase 1: ages 4-7: friends are those who play together
-phase 2: ages 8-10: trust and helping eachother are important aspects of friendship
-phase 3: ages 11-up: loyalty and intimacy are important
how do friendships change over time?
-people have most friends during young adulthood (20-30)
-the number of friends and quality of friendships is positively related to life happiness
-in the senior years the quality of friendships better predicts life happiness than quality of family relationships
Gender Differences in Friendship
-mens friendships are based on shared activities rather than confiding
-women's friendships are based on communication, intimacy, and support
-this begins in childhod and continues throughout the senior years
-it is one reason why women are often better at handlling life stress
What do we know about imaginary friends in preschool years?
-2/3 of preschoolers have imaginary friends
-preschoolers with imaginary friends have more real friends and do more pretend play in general, are able to tell the difference between fantasy and reality
Different types of peer problems
-rejected children: disliked
-controversial children: both liked and disliked
-neglected children: ignored
What do teens stress as important to friendships?
-teens share ad cooperate w others more
-increasingly turn to friends for support, help and fun
-use friends as a way to seperate from parents
what factors predict marital sucess?
-homogamy: similarity of values and intrest between partners
-when partners feel they share
1st time bride/groom under 20 are:
-3x more likely to divorce than 1st time b/g over 20
-6x more likely to divorce than 1st time b/g over 30
-why? self-identity, carrer, goals, etc. are better formed in older women
similarity of values and inerest between partners
-SES background- value of money
-family history- stable/unstable
Partner Sharing
-household duties
-child care responsiblities
-time at work vs. time at home
-providing own unique contributions
ex: husband maintains house and car but wife uses interior decorating talents
Fair Fighting
having low intensity disputes, not carrying disputes on for long periods of time, being assertive, not aggressive, being willing to compromise and be satisfied, being problem-centered rather than using personal attacks or allowing contaminaton from prior disputes
Immediate consequences of divorce on adults
-immediate consequences for adults:
--anger conflict
--practical difficulties: economics child rearing, etc.
Long term consequences of divorce on adults
most couples improve after 2 years and relate civilly to each other
short term consequenses of divorce on children
-school achievement decline in middle childhood
-regression in early childhood
-rebelliousness in teens
long term consequenses of divorce for chldren
kids adjust preety weill if parents cooperate, dont put kids in the middle and keep parenting consistant
How prevalent is domestic violence?
-affects more than 2 mil. women each year
-it is the greatest single cause of injury to U.S. women
-it is best understood as existing on a continuum
What is domestic Violence
verbal agression-physical agression-severe agression- murder
-name calling
-hitting w' objects
Why do women stay?
women stay because they believe that the most recent time is the last time. they love their husbands too much to leave they think they deserve it. women need to get help, understand that it isnt their fault and that they don't deserve it
types of abuse towards children
-psychological or emotional
physical abuse towards children
intentional activity that inflicts injury or impairment to functioning
sexual abuse towards children
exploitation for gratification or profit of adult
neglect of children
deprivation of necessary and available resources that creates risk of impairment
psychological or emotional abuse towards children
willfull distruction of a chlds sense of competence
Causes of child abuse
-cultural factors
-poor coping skills
-socially isolated families
-abuse as a kid
-substance abuse, mental illness
-violence is already a pattern
What children are most likey to be abused?
hyperactive children
-children with parents under stress and little social support
-poor families
-belief of physical punishment
stats on child abuse
Each Year:
-500,000 children are abused in some way
-2000 children die from abuse
more than 150,000 are seiously injured

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