Glossary of Auditory system
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- Which is larger, the tympanum or the oval window? Why?
- The tympanum is 15x larger than the oval window because it is receiving input from air, versus the oval window, which is receiving input from liquid.
- What seperates the external ear from the middle ear?
- What seperates the middle ear from the inner ear?
- Oval window
- What is in the middle ear?
- 3 ossicles (incus, malleus, stapes)
- What is in the inner ear?
- How does the middle ear communicate with the inner ear?
- The oval and round windows
- How many turns does the cochlea have?
- How many fluid filled chambers does the cochlea have?
- What are the fluid filled chambers of the cochlea?
- Scala vestibuli, scala media, and scala tympani
- What is another name for the scala media?
- Cochlear duct
- What connects the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani?
- What fluid fills the scala vestibuli and scala tympani?
- What fluid fills the scala media?
- What is perilymph analogous to?
- Cerebrospinal fluid
- What is endolymph analogous to?
- Intracellular fluid
- What seperates the scala vestibuli from the cochlear duct?
- The vestibular membrane
- What is another name for the vestibular membrane?
- Reissner's membrane
- What seperates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani?
- Basilar membrane
- Where is the organ of Corti located?
- in the scala media (cochlear duct) attached to the basilar membrane
- What are the 2 parts of the organ of Corti?
- An inner row and 3-5 cell deep outer row of hair cells
- Where are the hair cells embedded?
- the tectorial membrane
- What seperates the inner and outer rows of hair cells?
- the tunnel of Corti
- What is the tunnel of Corti filled with?
- What is the main function of the inner hair cells?
- What is the main function of the outer hair cells?
- modulate (tune) sounds
- What happens when fluid waves vibrate the basilar membrane and cause hair cells to bend?
- Membrane potential is reduced and a neurotransmitter is released
- What does this neurotransmitter do?
- Initiates an action potential in a fiber of the cochlear nerve
- At the base of the cochlea, the basilar membrane is -----, and responds maximally to ---- frequency waves
- Narrow, high
- At the apex of the cochlea, the basilar membrane is ----, and responds maximally to ----- frequnecy waves
- wide, low
- How does auditory sharpening make hearing more sensitive?
- Outer hair cells contract and make inner hair cells more sensitive
- How does auditory sharpening "tune things out"?
- Hair cells are inhibited by efferent fibers of the efferent cochlear bundle
- What is the full neurological pathway of high frequency sounds?
- Base of the cochlea
Dorsal part of the dorsal cochlear nucleus
Medial part of the median geniculate body
Caudomedial part of the transverse temporal gyri
- What is the full neurological pathway of low frequency sounds?
- Apex of the cochlea
Ventral part of the dorsal cochlear nuclesu and Ventral cochlear nucleus
Lateral part of the median geniculate body
Rostrolateral part of the transverse temporal gyri
- What is the origin and termination of central processes of primary auditory fibers?
- Originate in spiral ganglion, terminate in dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei
- What is the origin and termination of peripheral primary auditory fibers?
- Originate in spiral ganglion, terminate in the organ of Corti
- Where do secondary auditory fibers originate, and what do they form?
- Originate in the cochlear nuclei, form acoustic striae
- Where does the dorsal cochlear nucleus receive input from?
- The basal part of the cochlea
- Where does the dorsal cochlear nucleus send fibers to? Via what?
- Contralateral lateral lemniscus via the dorsal acoustic stria
- What are the two divisions of the ventral cochlear nucleus?
- Anteroventral nucleus and posteroventral nucleus
- Where does the anteroventral cochlear nucleus receive input from?
- apical part of the cochlea
- What do fibers leaving the anteroventral cochlear nucleus form? What does it become? Where is its destination?
- They form the ventral acoustic stria, which becomes the trapezoid body when it decusssates, and goes to the lateral lemniscus. Some fibers also terminate ofn the ipsilateral superior olivary nucleus
- Where does the posteroventral cochlear nucleus receive input from?
- apical part of the cochlea
- What does the posteroventral cochlear nucleus send fibers to? Via what?
- Contralateral superior olivary complex via the intermediate acoustic stria
- What is the function of the intermediate acoustic stria?
- Determining direction of sound
- Where is the superior olivary nucleus located? Near what other structure?
- In pons, near facial nucleus
- What are 3 functions of the superior olivary nucleus?
- 1) Sound localization via biaural interaction
2) Gives rise to the efferent cochlear bundle
3) Sends motor fibers bilaterally to stapedius and tensor tympani muscles
- What fibers form the trapezoid body?
- Contralateral ventral cochlear nucleus and contralateral superior olivary nucleus
- What is the principal ascending auditory pathway?
- Lateral lemniscus
- What fibers make up the lateral lemniscus?
- Ipsi AND contralateral cochlear and superior olivary nuclei
- Where does the lateral lemniscus terminate?
- inferior colliculus
- Where does the inferior colliculus send fibers to? Via what?
- Medial geniculate body via the brachium of the inferior colliculus
- Where does the medial geniculate body send fibers to? Via what? Through what?
- Transverse temporal gyrus cia auditory radiations through the sublentiform part of the internal capsule
- Where is the primary auditory area located?
- Brodmann's areas 41 and 42, of the transverse temporal gyri of Heschl, especially the middle part of the anterior gyrus
- Where are low frequencies located on the ttg?
- Where are high frequencies located on the ttg?
- Where is the auditory association area located?
- Planum temporale
- Why is the auditory association area important?
- Higher meaning of sound, disceerning the difference between different sounds
- Why is Wernicke's area important?
- Language function
- How does the CNS influence its own auditory input?
- Via the efferent cochlear bundle
- Where does the efferent cochlear bundle originate?
- In the superior olivary nuclei
- How does the efferenet cochlear bundle leave the brainstem?
- Via the vestibular nerve
- Where does the efferent cochlear bundle join the cochlear nerve? Via what? Where is it headed?
- In the inner ear, the efferent cochlear bundle joins the cochlear nerve via vestibulocochlear anastomosis to reach the organ of Corti
- What is the action of the efferent cochlear bundle?
- Inhibit receptivity of hair cells
- What are 3 things that can result in complete unilateral hearing loss?
- 1) destruction of the cochlea
2) destruction of CN VIII
3) destruction of the cochlear nuclei
- What will happen as a result of a unilateral lesion of a portion of the central auditory pathway?
- Mild hearing loss in the contralateral ear
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