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Glossary of Atomic Structure

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neutron
zero charged particle with a mass equal to a proton
Law of Multiple Proportions
when one element can combine with another to form more than one compound, the mass ratios of the elements in the compounds are simple whole-number ratios of each other
nucleus
dense center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
What is the discontinous theory and who created it?
-Democritus
-stated all matter is made up of tiny particles, called atoms,which could not be broken down into smaller particles
Law of Conservation of Matter
-Lavoisier
-In a chemical reaction the mass is not gained or lost
Atomic Theory of Matter
-Dalton
1. each element is composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms
2. atoms of the same element are identical, but they differ from those of any other element
3. atoms are neither created nor destroyed
4. a given compound always has the same relative numbers and kinds of atoms
Law of Constant Composition
-Proust
-A given compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass
mass number
equals the sum of protons and neutrons contained in the nucleus
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
(all have the same number of protons)
cation
a positive ion
proton
postively charged particle with a mass 1836 times that of an electron
Law of Definite Proportions
-Dalton
-when two pure substances react to form a compound, they do so in a definite proportion by mass
atomic number
equals number of protons
What is the continuous theory and who created it?
-Aristotle
-a smaple of matter could be divided and subdivided into smaller and smaller parts indefinitly
electron
negativly charged particle with very little mass
amu
one atomic unit
Anion
a negative ion

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