Glossary of Atmosphere

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What is a psychrometer?
instrument used to find the dewpoint.
What is evaporation?
the process of changing liquid water from oceans, lakes, streams, and solids on earth's surface into water vapor in the atmosphere
What is Transpiration
the process by which plants release water vapor through their leaves into the atmosphere.
What are vertical movements of air?
When the air is saturated, the vapor pressure is called______ ______ _______
saturation vapor pressure
What are the lines used to connect places of equal temperature, equal pressure?
Isothermes, isobars
What are the high- pressure, dry belts known as?
zones of divergence
What are aerosols?
dust and water vapor that scatter and reflect some radiation
_______ _________ is responsable for changes in all atmospheric variables
Heat energy
what does it mean to be saturated?
when the air contains all the moisture it can hold at a particular temperature
What is air pressure?
the force or weight of the air pushing down on a unit area of surface.
What is the dew point temperature?
the temperature at which condensation occurs. at the dewpoint air is holding all the moisture it can hold.
What is Relative Humidity?
The comparison between the amount of moisture in the air with the amount the air can actually hold at that temperature
When there is a smaller difference between the wet- bulb and dry- bulb temps, the more ________ the air.
Orographic lifting occurs when...
mountains act as barriers to the flow of airforcin it to rise to the other side
The psycrometer consists of 2 thermometers- what are they?
dry- bulb and wet- bulb
As the air temperature approaches the dewpoint, ___________ becomes more likely.
The amount water vapor actually present in the air is known as _______ _______
absolute humidity
What is condensation?
the process by which gaseous water vapor changes to liquid water
The ability of air to hold water vapor is directly related to the ____________ of the air.
What is insolation?
incoming solar radiation.
To determine dewpoint tempertureand relative humidity, use chart on pg.312 or in ESRT.
Hey nurse, whtz up?
What is a convection cell?
the cyclical movement of a fluid due to differences in density and the effect of the gravity field
the midlatitude jet stream is called the________ _____ ______
polar jet stream
As the dewpoint temp. and air temp. come close together,the relative humidity ______, and the probability of precipitation _______.
increases, increases
A falling barometer indicates what?
the probability that rainy weather is on it's way.
which is heavier- moist air or dry air?
dry air is heavier due to the fact that air pressure is inversely proportional to teh amount of moisture in the air
What is capacity?
the amount of water vapor can hold
The greater the absolute humidity, the __________ the dewpoint temperature.
What is frictional drag?
the energy of friction produced at teh interface of earths surface and the atmosphere
When the air is saturated, no ___________ takes palce.
What are clouds?
give 2 examples
collection of tiny water droplets or ice crystals
- cirrus, and cumulonimbus
What is the instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure?
what is vapor pressure?
when the pressure exerted by only the water vapor in the air is measured.
How does the atmosphere recieve most of it's heat energy?
conduction, absorbtion of insolation as it passes through atmosphere, and reradiation from earth
When water vapor changes directly into solid water, ice or snow through process known as...
What are jet streams?
high- speed winds which travel in a wave- like eastern direction
air always moves from areas of ____ pressure to areas of ___ pressure
high, low
What is evapotranspiration?
refers to all the water vapor released by both evaporation and transpiration.
What are the low- pressure belts where air regions come together?
zones of convergence
What is convection?
transfer of heat energy by movement of fluids
the rate of change in pressure between two locations is called...
pressure gradient
What are large horizontal movements of air near the earths surface, What are local horizontal movements of air near earths surface?
winds, breezes
What is condution?
the transfer of heat energy from molecule to molecule
when water vapor condenses directly onto a cold surface_____ is formed. When water vapor comes into contact with a freezing surface, _____ is formed
dew, frost
If the density of a matter increases than the _________ also increates.
pressure (they are directly related)
what three factors affect daily temperature?
latitude, altitude, and closeness to large bodies of water

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