Glossary of Astro2

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Primeval Atmosphere
1st atmosphere made of gases from solar nebula
Kuiper Belt
disk of icey planetesiimals
Dust Disk
*cold, low density
*debris left over by comets or collisions
*evidence of planetary systems
Secondary Atmosphere
current atmosphere
78%N 21% O2
(between Mars and Jupiter)
*irregular cratered objects
*low density (not solid)
Pressure Waves
(earthquake waves)
can travel through liquid
nickel, iron
solid particles collide and stick to one another
long pd-randomly inclinded orbits
short pd- w/ in 30 degrees of the plane of the solar system
Hot Spots
rising magnma rises through the mantle, pokes through and creates volcanoes
Oort Cloud
spherical cloud of icy bodies
Relative Ages
can tell which feature formed first, but not its age
halo of gas and dust surrounding nucleus
Terrestrial Planets
*small size, low mass
*dese, rocky solid surfaces
*heavy gas atmospheres
*slow rotators
*close to the sun
Meteor Showers
Earth pases through trail and partilces fall toward Earth
seperation of planetary material according to density
Terraforming Mars
*no magnetic field
*lava flows smoothed out Northern Hemisphere
*thick crust
Radioactive Dating
*mineral sample containing radioactive atoms which decay into daughter atoms
*percentage of radioactive and daughter atoms in the mineral
EARTH-4.3-4.4 billion years old
MOON-4.48 billion years
MARS- 4.5 billion years
METEORITES-4.6 billion years
SOLAR SYSTEM-4.6 billion years
chards of glass
baby planets that dont have enough gravity to hold an atmosphere
gas and dust
Jovian Planets
*large and massive
*low density, huge gaseous atmospheres
*rotate fast
*many moons
Stellar Motions
detected through Doppler Shifts
Ratiation Pressure
light from the Sun exerted pressure on the particles, pushing them out of our solar system
Midocean Rise
location where planets are spreading apart
Evidence of Extrasolar Planets
*detection of dust
*detection of stellar motions
Fission Hypothesis
moon broke from Earth
Side to Side Waves
can't travel through liquid
heavily cratered reigons (older)
*larger planetesimals
*able to hold an atmosphere
*temp held constant during planet formation
*temp decreases over time
Condensation Sequence
*different materials condense from a gas into grains at different temperatures
*different materials condense at different distances from the Sun
CLOSE TO THE SUN- metal oxides, pure metals
FARTHER OUT-silicates and rocky material
OUTER REIGONS-ices (condense the fastest)
lowland plains (younger)
Planetary Developement
*differentiation produces a dense core, thick mantle, and low density crust
*young Earth heavily bombarded
*flood of molton lava
Earths Layers
1. inner core
2. liquid core
3. mantle
Condensation Hypothesis
Earth and moon condensed from the same cloud
Magnetic Field
generated by moving charged particles in the core
Large-Impact Hypothesis
Moon formed when a planetesimal hit Earth
Subduction Zone
trench where one plate slides under another
Solar Nebula Theory
*rotating cloud of dust and gas contracts and flattens
*forms a thin disk of gas and dust around the forming sun at the center
*planets grow in from the gas and dust int eh disk and are left behind when the dust clears
atoms of a gas hit dust grains and stick, adding mass to the particle
Capture Hypothesis
Moon formed elsewhere and was captured by Earths gravity
Tidal Coupling
Earth's gravity keeps same side of the moon facing earth
Solar Wind
a flow of atoms form the suns upper atmosphere also help push particles out of the solar system

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