Glossary of Asian history
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- Earl Macartney
- During Opium war,
appointed the first envoy of Britain to China. He arrived in Beijing in 1793 with a large British delegation on board of a 64-gun man-of-war. He met the Emperor Qianlong, but failed in negotiating the British requests:
1, the relaxation of the restrictions on trade between Britain and China
2, the establishment of a permanent British embassy in Beijing
- lin zexu
- LIN Zexu was an official loyal to the Daoguang Emperor of China, most famous for his active fight against foreign-imported opium during the Qing dynasty. Although Lin did not want war between China and Great Britain, his aggressive anti-opium policies are usually considered to be the primary catalyst for the First Opium War.
Lin also wrote a letter of understanding to Queen Victoria of Britain warning her that China was adopting a stricter policy towards everyone, Chinese or foreign, who brought opium into China.
- treaty of nanjing
- The Treaty of Nanking) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China.
Under the treaty, China agreed to cede Hong Kong Island (together with some small nearby islands) to the British Empire, and open ports for foreign trade Also, extraraterritoriality for British Citizens on Chinese soil (they are not subjected to chinas laws_)
The treaty left several unsettled issues. In particular it did not resolve the status of the opium trade with China, which was profitable for the British and which many historians believe have been devastating to the Chinese.
- hong xiuquan
- Hóng Xiùquán was a Hakka Chinese Christian who led the Taiping Rebellion and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, in which he was known as the Heavenly King (天王/Tīan wáng).
In Guangzhou, after his second attempt in the exam, he received a copy of the booklet The Benevolent Words to Advise the World. After reading it in 1843, believed that the man in black in his vision was God, and that he was the younger son of God, the brother of Jesus, on earth with a mission to found a new kingdom - a new Messiah.
In the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping he established in 1851, he dictated several reforms that would have improved the lives of his subjects, but they were implemented harshly and ineffectively in the Taiping Rebellion.
- zeng guofan
- Zēng Guófán,) was an eminent Han Chinese official of the Manchu Qing Dynasty. He served as Jin Shi under the Daoguang Emperor. He later raised the Xiang army to fight effectively against the Taiping Rebellion. He was known for his military skill and sometimes for his ruthlessness.
Zeng Guofan's legacy in history is two-fold. He is either criticized as a traitor of the Chinese people, or seen as a hero in preserving order and stability. Many in China and abroad admire his ability to successfully survive in the ruthless Late-Qing bureaucracy. Some have blamed Zeng for all the civilian losses and damages done from the Taiping Rebellion, others criticize him for being too friendly with certain foreign ideas.
- matthew perry
- Matthew Perrywas the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who forced the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854, under the threat of military force.
Japan had for centuries shunned modern technology, and the Japanese military forces could not resist Perry's modern weaponry; the "black ships" would then become, in Japan, a symbol of threatening Western technology and colonialism.
The Japanese government had to accept Perry's coming ashore if it was to avoid a naval bombardment. Perry proceeded ashore at Kurihama, (near modern-day Yokosuka) on July 14, presented the letter to delegates present and left for the Chinese coast, promising to return for a reply.
- yoshido shoin
- A man who was executed after trying to start a rebellion. he wqas very interested in learning abotu teh west, and wanted to overthrow the tokugawa shogunate. most of his students, including ito hirobumi, went on to be officers in the meiji era.
- sonno joi
- Sonnō jōi (尊皇攘夷 or 尊王攘夷) is a Japanese political philosophy and a social movement derived from Neo-Confucianism; it became a political slogan in 1850s-60s. It has the meaning "Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians".
The origin of the philosophy can be seen in Takenouchi Shikibu's theory of absolute loyalty to the Emperor (尊皇論 sonnōron), with the implication that less loyalty should be given to the ruling Tokugawa Shogunate. Expelling the barbarians, on the other hand, was a reaction to the Treaty of Kanagawa, which opened Japan to foreign trade in 1853. Under military threat from Commodore Matthew Perry's so-called "black ships", the treaty had been signed under duress and was vehemently opposed in samurai quarters.
The philosophy was adopted as a battle cry of the rebellious provinces of Choshu and Satsuma.
After the symbolic restoration of the Meiji Emperor, the slogan was quietly dropped and replaced with another: "rich country, strong military", the rallying call of Japan's wildly successful Meiji Era
- shi shi
- Ishin Shishi were so called "patriots" who helped start the Meiji period in Japanese history and who were at odds with the anti-imperialist, pro-bakufu Shinsengumi police force. They were imperialists with little regard for public safety who supported a change in government by opposing the current Tokugawa shogunate and instead wanted to put an emperor back on the throne. The Ishin Shishi contained the Choshu forces as well as the Satsuma in their conquest to abolish the Tokugawa Shogunate
- satsuma rebellion
- The Satsuma Rebellion was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army.
The samurai of Satsuma had grown dissatisfied with the direction the government was taking. The modernization of the country was resulting in the dismantling of feudalism: stripping the emperor of official power and destroying the traditional social structure. Perhaps more importantly to the samurai the dismantling of feudalism also meant the abolition of their social status, privileges and power, and undermined their financial position. The rebellion was led by Saigo Takamori,. Saigo had supported the reforms in the beginning. But when the privileges of his own samurai class were abandoned, his conservative and traditionalist character caused him to side with his class rather than the national government.
The crushing of the Satsuma Rebellion cost the government greatly financially. This rebellion was also the end of the samurai class. Saigo Takamori was labeled as a tragic hero by the people and ten years later the Japanese government pardoned and promoted him posthumously to highest honors.
- fukoku kyohei
- Fukoku kyōhei "Enrich the country, strengthen the military", was Japan's national slogan during the Meiji Era, replacing sonnō jōi.
The slogan was the central objective of the Meiji leaders. Fukoku kyohei entailed the formulation of far-reaching policies to transform Japanese society in an all out effort to catch up with the West. Although the government played a major role in providing the setting for industrialization, destroying old institutions that proved obstacles to industrialization. This symbolized an emerging nationalism in Japan
- fukuzawa yukichi
- Fukuzawa Yukichi was an author, motivational speaker, and political theorist whose ideas about government and social institutions made a lasting impression on a rapidly changing Japan during the period known as the Meiji Era. Fukuzawa's ideas about individual strength and his knowledge of western political theory, as presented in his writings, were instrumental in motivating the Japanese people to embrace change. prowestern, anti-feudalism, toured the world, spread desire for japan to adopt western ideas
- five charter oath
- Five Charter Oath was an outline of the main aims and the course of action to be followed by the new Meiji era government of Japan after the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1867 during the Meiji Restoration. The oath set a new path in Japanese history with an emphasis on modernization and the establishment of a new social structure. Advocated democracy, equality, and progress (abandoning old traditional customs and advancing forward)
- imperial rescript on education
- Imperial Rescript on Education was signed by Emperor Meiji of Japan on October 30, 1890. It was distributed to every school in the Japanese Empire, along with a portrait of the Emperor that was to be kept hidden from view. The Rescript pushed traditional ideals of Confucianism.
The Rescript requested of the people that "furthermore advance public good and promote common interests; always respect the Constitution and observe the laws; should emergency arise, offer yourselves courageously to the State; and thus guard and maintain the prosperity of Our Imperial Throne coeval with heaven and earth".
- iwakura mission
- Iwakura Mission was a Japanese diplomatic journey around the world, initiated in 1871 by the oligarchs of the Meiji era. Although it was not the only such "mission", it is the most well-known and possibly most important for the modernization of Japan after a long period of isolation from the West.. They wanted to:
1. To renegotiate the unequal treaties with the U.S.A., Great Britain and other European countries that Japan had been forced into during the previous decades.
2. To gather information on education, technology, culture, and military, social and economic structures from the countries visited in order to effect the modernization of Japan.
- treaty of shimonoseki
- Treaty of shimonoseki ended the First Sino-Japanese War in favour of Japan, the clear victor. In the treaty China recognized the independence of Korea and renounced any claims to that country. It also ceded the Liaodong peninsula, and the islands of Taiwan to Japan. China also paid Japan a war indemnity of 200 million Kuping taels, and opened various ports and rivers to international entry and trade.
- russo japanese war
- Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. The war was fought principally over possession of the town of Port Arthur (aka Lushun and Ryojun) and the Liaodong Peninsula, plus the railway from the port to Harbin.
The conflict resulted in a victory for Japan which won most conflicts of the war, and devastated Russia's deep water navy while chewing up several Russian armies. That feeling of triumph soured drastically in Japan, leading to widespread riots when the terms of the peace treaty were announced, military and economic exhaustion of both belligerents, and the reluctant and distasteful (to the West) establishment of Japan as a major world power.
- annexation of korea
- ANNEXATION OF KOREA Korea under Japanese rule refers to the period of Japan's physical occupation of the Korean peninsula in the early 20th century. Japan and Russia soon engaged in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904 and 1905. Japanese victory in the conflict put an end to Russian influence in Korea.
On August 22, 1910, Korea was effectively annexed by Japan . Korea was ruled as an effective colony of Japan until Japan's surrender to the Allied Forces on 15 August 1945. This period of annexation and exploitative colonization explains why anti-Japanese sentiment is still strong throughout both North and South Korea.
- ITO hirobumi
- ITO HIROBUMI
First prime minster of japan
After the Meiji Restoration, Ito served as a junior councillor in a number of different ministries He headed a number of missions to study foreign governments. The idea of constitutional governance was the strong influence he received as a member of Iwakura mission.
As Prime Minister again (1892-96) he supported the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and negotiated the Treaty of Shimonoseki in March 1895
In November 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War Korea was occupied by Japanese forces and the Korean government was made to sign the Protectorate Treaty, Ito became the first Resident General there in 1906. he got the emporer of korea to resign. Ito's death was followed by the full annexation of Korea in 1910 with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty.
- li hongzhang
- Li Hongzhang was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. He served in important positions of the Imperial Court, once holding the office of the Viceroy of Zhili. He was best known in the west for his diplomatic negotiation skills.
- empress dowager cixi
- The Empress Dowager CIxi was a powerful and charismatic figure who was the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, Historians consider that she probably did her best to cope with the difficulties of the era but her conservative attitudes did not serve her well and the Western powers continued to take advantage of the country's relatively low level of technological development
- kang youwei
- Kang Youwei was a Chinese scholar and political reformist. He called for an end to property and the family in the interest of Chinese nationalism. Due to his desire to end the traditional Chinese family structure, he is regarded as an advocate for women's rights in China. 
After China became a republic in 1912 he remained an advocate of constitutional monarchy,
- hundred days reform
- Hundred Days' Reform was a 103-day reform aimed at making sweeping social and institutional changes. The Chinese defeat by Japan in 1894-5, not long after the Opium Wars, shocked China. Japan used to be a tribute state, was much smaller than China, and was regarded as inferior. The conservatives were unable to use old excuses anymore.
With the help of certain senior officials of the Qing court, who were supporters of reform, Kang Youwei was allowed to speak to the Emperor, and his suggestions were enacted. There were three essential preconditions of reform:
1. Modernizing the traditional exam system
2. Elimination of sinecures (positions that provide little or no work but gives a salary)
3. Creation of a modern education system (studying math and science instead of focusing mainly on Confucianist texts etc.)
- sun yetsen
- Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader who had a significant role in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. A founder of the Kuomintang, Sun was the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912. He developed a political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People which still heavily influences Chinese governments today.
Sun was a uniting figure in post-imperial China, and remains unique among 20th century Chinese politicians for being widely revered in both mainland China and Taiwan.
- the three principles of hte people
- Three Principles of the People is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a program to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. Its legacy of implementation is most apparent in the governmental organization of the Republic of China, The ideology is heavily influenced by Sun's experiences in the United States and contains elements of the American progressive movement and the thought championed by Abraham Lincoln. Sun was also heavily influenced by Confucian ideologies.
- revolutionary alliance
- Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen .
Combining republican, nationalist, and socialist objectives, the groups platform was "to overthrow the Manchu barbarians, to restore China to the Chinese, to establish a republic, and to distribute land equally."
- 1911 revolution
- 1911 Revolution was the revolution which overthrew China's ruling Qing Dynasty, which was also known as the Manchu Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China. Leading to a new age of democracy, the revolution had ended the monarchy which had a history for 4000 years in China. The ensuing revolutionary war lasted from October 10, 1911 and ended upon the formation of the Republic of China on February 12, 1912.
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