Glossary of Ashli's Bio cards

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does not require energy, molecules move down a concentration gradient

- note: opposite = ACTIVE TRANSPORT
the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
the diffusion of water
Facilitated diffusion
uses carrier proteins; involves the transport of glucose
a solution with a GREATER number of molecules.
water enters cell, and cells get BIG

- opposite = Hypotonic
a solution with a SMALLER number of molecules.
water leaves cell, and cells SHRIVEL

- opposite = Hypertonic
a solution with an EQUAL number of molecules.
water moves in and out of cell equal, homeostasis
Contractile vacuole
A membrane-bound organelle (found in certain protists) that pumps fluid from within the cell to the outside. requires energy
Ion channels
passageway for the diffusion of ions across a cell membrane
requires energy,
molecules go against a concentration gradient
ex: Sodium potassium pump –
1st 3 sodium ions bind to the INSIDE of the carrier protein
2 potassium ions bind to the OUTSIDE of the carrier protein
2nd a phosphate group (removed from ATP) binds to and changes the shape of the carrier protein.
3rd this causes the 3 sodium ions to be kicked out of the cell, and 2 potassium ions are dragged into the cell
4th the phosphate group is then released from the carrier protein
5th the release of the phosphate group → carrier protein returns to its original shape
when a vesicle inside the cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment

- opposite = endocytosis
when cells ingest external fluids, macromolecules, large particles

- opposite = exocytosis
Turgor pressure
pressure exerted on the cell wall (basically, this pressure pushes out on the cell walls)
when water leaves cells → cells shrink away from the cell wall → turgor pressure is lost → plants wilt

- opposite = cytolysis
Concentration gradient
differences in the concentration of molecules
chowing down large molecules and carrying them inside the cell
a cell that eats a lot of things (engaged in phagocytosis
transport of fluids into the cell

- note: Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis are similar, because both bring things
bursting of cells because too much water goes inside of

- opposite = Plasmolysis
a membrane-bound sac that contains materials involved in exocytosis, endocytosis, or transport in cells. This is like a tiny balloon inside the cell

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