Glossary of Articulatory-Phonological Development and Disorders

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Behavioral Theory
The theory of speech sound acquisition is based on conditioning and learning. Speech does not require such special phenomena as innate universals. Develops through interactions with the caretaker through classical conditioning.
Structural theory
(Jacobson, Chomsky, Halle) phonological development follows innate, universal, and hierarchical order of acquisition of distinctive features. Includes the hypothesis of discontinuity between early babbling and subsequent speech development
Biological Theory
(Locke) The foundation of phonological acquisition consists of innate dispositions to certain motor actions (babbling constrains because of shape and size of the vocal tract.)
Cognitive Theory
Children face various challenges in their attempts to acquire the adult phonological system, and that each child uses unique strategies in this process, depending on the child's natural disposition. The child targets whole words as opposed to segments
Natural Phonology Theory
(Stampe) Unmarked sounds are sounds that appear to be natural, marked sounds are less natural and tend to be acquired later. Natural phonological processes are innate processes that simplify the adult target word. Innate or acquired early in life.
Generative Phonology
(Smith) The child does not have a psychologically real, productive system that underlies their forms. The child "rewrites" or maps the adult form onto their system. A child stores speech forms correctly but has production constraints that lead to the use of phonological processes
Infant Development - Oller Stages
1. Phonation stage (birth-1 mo) Vocalizations are reflexive (burp, cough). Some non reflexive vowels or syllabic consonants may occur. 2. Cooing or Gooing stage (2-3 mo) Productions are similar to /u/. Some velar consonant-like sounds may occur. 3. Expansion Stage (4-6 mo) Productions are growls, squeals, yells, and raspberries. Some CV-like and vowel-like sounds may be produced. 4. Canonical or reduplicated babbling stage (6-8 mo) Strings of CV syllables. Children (8 mo) with hearing loss begin to fall behind. 5. Variegated or nonreduplicated babbling stage (8-12) Adult like CV sequences with a variety of consonants in a single vocalization.
Speech sound acquisition
Vowels, nasals, stops, glides, fricatives and affricates, liquids, consonant clusters
Phonological Process
Children's errors are simplifications of the adult model of correct articulation
Vocalizations, gliding, fronting, stopping, depalitization, affrication, deaffrication, backing & glottal replacement
Reduplication, regressive, progressive, & voicing or devoicing
Syllable Structure Processes
Weak-Syllable deletion, fcd, cluster reduction, diminutization, and metathesis (word reversal)
Factors related to articulatory and phonological disorders
"•Gender: More boys than girls have articulation disorders. Intelligence: Not associated with articulation except when it is significantly below normal. Birth Order: First-born have better articulation than younger siblings. Socioeconomic Status: Not a strong factor in articulation disorders, but lower SES children do make more articulation errors, possibly because of lack of health insurance. Academic Performance: Young children with phonological disorders may be at risk for problems with reading and spelling in the elementary school years. Auditory Discriminations Skills: Researchers used to think children with articulation and phonological disorders had poor auditory discrimination skills, which caused the disorders. Studies have had inconsistent results but clinicians still work on it.
Articulation errors
"•Substitutions, Omissions/Deletions, Labialization: sounds produced with excessive lip rounding, Pharyngeal Fricative: fricatives such as /h/ are produced in the pharyngeal area, Devoicing, Frontal Lisp: Tongue to far forward, Lateral Lisp: Air flow is inappropriately over the sides of the tongue. Stridency Deletion: Strident sounds are omitted, Unaspirated, Prevocalic, intervocalic, postvocalic error:
(tongue tie) short frenum
Deviations in the shape and dimensions of the mandible and maxilla and positioning of individual teeth. Class 1 - normal, Class 2 - overbite, class 3 - underbite
Diadochokinetic Rate
Maximum rate of syllables in rapid succession. Goal is to assess the functional and structural integrity of the lips, jaw and tongue
Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders
Tongue Thrust) Any anatomical or physiological characteristic of the orofacial structures that interferes with normal speech, physical, dentofacial, or psychosocial development. May exhibit deviant swallows. The tongue tip may push against the front teeth, and may protrude to touch the lower lip. During speech, the tongue may exert force against the front teeth. Even at rest the tongue may be carried more forward in the oral cavity.
Dysarthria (in children)
"A speech-motor disorder caused by peripheral or central nervous system damage. This damage causes paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of the muscles of speech. In children, can be caused by cerebral palsy, head injury, degenerative diseases, tumors, and strokes. All speech production systems are affected.
"Caused by central nervous system damage. There is no weakness or paralysis of the muscles. It is a motor programming disorder.
Processes disappearing by age 3
Reduplication, weak syllable deletion, consonant assimilation, prevocalic voicing, fronting velars, fcd, diminutization
Processes persisting after age 3
final consonant devoicing, consonant-cluster reduction, epenthesis, gliding, depalatization, vocalizations
Motor Based Approaches
McCabe and Bradley's Multiple Phoneme Approach, Baker and Ryan's Monterey Artic Program, McDonalds Sensory Motor Approach, Irwin and Weston's Paired Stimuli Approach
McCabe and Bradley's Multiple Phoneme Approach
All articulation errors should be treated in all sessions. Appropriate for children with 6 or more errors, and focuses on sound production in conversational speech. Does not emphasize auditory discrimination training. Goal is 90% whole word accuracy in conversational speech.
Baker and Ryan's Monterey Articulation Program
A motor-based hierarchical and detailed program uses behavior principals and programmed learning concepts. Imitation is heavily emphasized. 3 phases: Establishment, transfer, & maintenance. Good for children who need a highly structured motor-articulation treatment approach. Repetition and practice are highly emphasized.
McDonalds Sensory-Motor Approach
Based on the assumption that the syllable, not the isolated phoneme, is the basic unit of speech production. Principles of coarticulation are important. Helpful for children with oral-motor coordination difficulties.
Irwin & Weston's Paired Stimuli Approach
Identify a key word in which the target sound appears only once, in either initial or final position, and is produced correctly 9/10 times. Key words are used to teach the production of sounds in other contexts. A single sound is targeted at a time. Builds on behaviors already in the client’s repertoire and takes little time to teach the child.
Cognitive Linguistic Approaches
Distinctive Feature approach, minimal pair contrast approach, phonological knowledge approach, phonological process approach, hodson and Paden's cycles approach, Metaphon Theory
Definition of Cognitive Linguistic approach
"•Geared toward modifying the child’s underlying rule system so that it matches the adult standard. Remediate underlying patterns or rules instead of discrete phonemes.
Distinctive Features Approach
"Teaching a feature in a context of a few sounds will result in generalized production of other sounds with the same feature(s). i.e. Teach /f/ in hopes that stridency would generalize to /v/ and /s/ without teaching them.
Minimal Pair Contrast Approach
Uses pairs of words that differ by one feature-the feature the clinician is trying to help the child to conceptualize.
Phonological Knowledge Approach
Treatment is begun on the sounds that are most consistently misarticulated. Treatment targets should allow the child the opportunity to acquire skills needed to produce more than single sounds. Teaching place, manner and voicing.
Phonological Process Approach
A child’s errors reflect the operation of certain phonological rules and that the problem is phonemic (abstract) , not phonetic (concrete).
Hodson and Paden's Cycle Approach
Designed to treat children with multiple misarticulations and highly unintelligible speech. Error patterns are targeted based on stimulability, intelligibility, and percentage of occurrence (40% or greater.) Phonological acquisition is a gradual process so error patterns are not drilled to mastery. The clinician introduces correct patterns, gives the child limited practice with them, and returns to them at a later date. A cycle runs -16 weeks and each child requires 3-6 cycles. All error patterns are treated in each cycle. Each error pattern receives one hour of treatment per cycle before they proceed to the next error pattern.
Metaphon Theory
Designed to enhance a child’s metalinguistic skills. Focuses on feature differences between sounds to help children develop awareness of sounds that can be classified by characteristics such as place and duration.

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