Glossary of Art History Paintings and Dates

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Madonna of the Long Neck
i. Overly contrived
ii. Contorted shapes and length
iii. After Raphael, 1520-1550 done by Parmigianino
iv. Line and elegance, curved and sinuous, figura serpentine
v. Unrealistic, peculiar coloration, candy-like colors
vi. No sense of stability or center forms emerging from darkness
Facade of the s. Maria Novella
b. Alberti:
i. Florence
ii. 1458-70
iii. like a temple
iv. gothic arches
v. mathematical precison
vi. scroll devices joint stories
Birth of Venus
d. Botticelli
i. 1480s
ii. tempera on canvas
iii. at the Uffizi
e. David and Creation of Adam
i. 1535-41
ii. fresco in Sistine Chapel
Last Judgement
f. Giotto
i. 1306
ii. fresco in Arena Chapel in Padua
The Academics of the Royal
i. Johann Zoffany Academy, 1772
The Oath of the Horatii
k. J.l. David , 1785
i. Loyalty of state rather than loyalty to family
ii. Woman is passive and seated
Woman’s Mission: Companion of Manhood
l. George Elgar Hicks, 1863
i. Visual representation of woman’s duty
ii. “duty” like a calling
iii. man hides emotion, she leans on him in dependence, even as a supporter, she needs him
iv. he is oak, she is ivy
Awakening Conscience
m. Holman Hunt, 1853
i. Depicts an illicitous relationship
ii. Its her conscience awakening
iii. Under table, cat releases bird
iv. Pring of Christ and woman in adultery
v. Cupids on clock are dozing
vi. Music: erotic temptation and seduction
vii. She wears rings on every finger except wedding finger
viii. She is unkempt, representing moral laxity
The Music Lesson
n. Jan Vermeer, i.
1662-64 Examines the relationship between men and women
Oriental Slave Market
o. Jean-Leon Gerome, the artist’s model, 1866
i. Touches the plaster reproduction of her thigh
ii. He wears glves- professional detachment
iii. He is completely in power
The Masked ball at the opera
p. Manet: 1873
i. The meat market, brings oriental slave market to civilized context
ii. Disembodied forms in balcony
iii. This was rejected from salon while Gerome’s was accepted
Astarte Syriaca
r. Rosetti: 1877
i. Always half-figures in floral scenes
ii. They are enclosed, chained, restrained
iii. Flowers are metaphor for sexuality
iv. Halo makes her a Madonna, the apple makes her eve
Bronze doors of the Florence Cathedral
by Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455)
Las Meninas
u. Velasquez’s 1656 verses Picasso’s imitations 1957
Judith beheading Holofernes
v. Caravaggio , 1598-99
George Frederick Handel
Roubiliac, 1738

first lifesize statue of a living artist, he was dressed informally and classical references were included alluding to Orpheus or Apollo
Sir Hamilton
y. Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1776-7,
1st Age, or Late Medieval or Gothic
f. (though Gothic is a misnomer)
i. 1250’s-1400
ii. Cimabue: little spatial relationships, concerned with the decorative, no depth, used striations or gold on drapery
iii. Giotto: gold background, halo’s still decorative, but munch more depth, no striations, light and dark contrasts gave dimension, fleshy features, more round, “emotional” involvement with viewer, painting was closer to nature (according to Vasari), figures have eight, bodies exist under draperies, heavily stylized facial features
iv. Altarpieces tend to be polyptychs with many panels representing individual saints against a gold leaf background
The Early Renaissance
g. (1410-90s) is marked by more reality and accuracy, linear perspective, drawing nature and anatomy, oil painting
i. End of the polyptych which was replaced by unified fields and less gold leaf
ii. New interest in classical antiquity
iii. Bellini: “linking figure” directly appeals to the viewer and guides him how to react, typical of Vasari’s 2nd age (or Early Renaissance), consistency of size and proportion, singly point perspective, gold goes out of favor in the 1420/30s and instead the paitn itself should replicate gold
The Third Age, or High Renaissance
h. or Mannerism (1480s-1520 or da Vinci to Raphael)
i. Da Vinci and others moved away from symmetrical arrangement of saint-virgin-saint
ii. Figures relationships are more fluid
iii. Not iconic, but paintings are a frozen single moment
iv. Interest in visual harmony
v. Interaction of views
vi. Incorporated classical motifs and idioms
vii. Mannerism occurred from the death of Raphael onqards, and characterized by “destabilized” compositions and emphasis of flowing curved lines and figura serpentine (Madonna of the Long Neck), very unrealistic colors or forms emerging from darkness
Giorgio Vasari
iii. Lives of the Artists
1. Published 1550
2. First history on the visual arts
3. Set out ground rules for history of art as a discipline
4. Followed for two centuries
5. Chief Elements:
a. connoisseurship: making judgments about the quality of artists works for the purpose of attribution and to decide whether they should be part of canon
i. “quality” was based on degree of naturalism or illusion, technical advances made and the idea of ideal beauty
ii. requires sensitivity to form and close examination and analysis of art works this lead to the labeling of movements, schools and periods
b. humanism
6. Structure:
a. Part I: 14th century: Cimabue, Giotto, Gaddi
b. Part II: 15th cent: Masaccio, Donatello, Botticelli
c. Part III: 16th-1560s: da Vinci, Raphael, Titan, with Michelangelo as perfection
7. Vasari used Petrarch’s model of cyclical ages but added the idea biological rise, maturity and decay
a. childhood: Giotto
b. youth: Massaccio
c. maturity: Michelangelo
d. this implies art will decline
8. ignored social and political contexts
Leon Battista Alberti
f. On Painting (1435 Latin, 1436 Italian)
i. The first theoretical work on the visual arts, describing the principles for judging art  all but one of the paintings/sculptures worth emulating were also described by Pliny
ii. Book 1: the methods of Linear Perspective
1. first time this was written down, but the technique was first invented by Brunelleschi, the “rediscovery of ancient architecture”
2. the first example of linear perspective was in Massacio’s Trinity, a fresco c.1426 in Santa Maria Novella in Florence
3. dimensions became catanthropic (based on proportions of body) rather than epanthropic (based on absolute size of the body)
iii. Book 2: Design
1. three parts, similar to the way classical rhetoriticians like Cicero and Quintillion divided rhetorical works into three parts
2. argues that historia (historical painting) is the most important
iv. Book 3: education of the painter
1. the painter is more than just a craftsman, but a trained in the liberal arts
2. the artist should copy from nature and improve upon it
Lorenzo Ghiberti
g. Commentaries (1440’s)
i. Also influenced by Pliny
ii. 1st part: repeats history of classical art
iii. then tells the history of Tuscan art from Giotto
iv. culminates in his own autobiography
v. Tells of how he completed the bronze doors of Florence Cathedral
h. (1445-1510)
i. Mixed with the Medici elite, was exposed to humanist ides
ii. Replicated famous classical paintings described by ALberti
iii. Created entirely new compositions that used classical elements from classical texts
i. “pinnacle” of renaissance art
ii. made up stories about his own life, destroyed his earlier works so it looked like he was a natural genius
iii. reflected the desire of artists to be seen in a good light by posterity, and reflected their link to divine creativity
vii. Florentine families spent a lot of public buildings to justify their wealth and power, based on Aristotle’s ideas
1. 1506:
depicts an event in Vergil's Aeneid (Book 2). The Trojan priest Laocoön was strangled by sea snakes, sent by the gods who favored the Greeks, while he was sacrificing at the altar of Neptune. Because Laocoön had tried to warn the Trojan citizens of the danger of bringing in the wooden horse, he incurred the wrath of the gods.
early 1st cent
Apollo Belvedere
original from the fifth century BC
discovered 1500
a major influence of the Renaissance Arts such as in David and the Creation of Adam.
First documented in the 12 th century, the Spinario later became one of the ancient works of art that inspired the Italian Renaissance.
Belvedere garden
ii. Sculpture gardens of Lorenzo de’ Medici’s became the most popular way to show antiquities, the most important being the papal Belvedere garden
1. behind the Vatican villa built by Pope Innocent VIII in 1485, setting the standard for artistic display for the next 300 years
2. The sculptures gained fame when Sixtus IV donated them to conservatories
3. Ultimately dispersed by Pius V in 1566 because he saw them as “idols”
Savonarola's effects on art
j. 1560’s painted draperies on all nudes
Denounced magnificence
Major Landscape Painters
viii. Salvator Rosa fought for freedom of the artist and recognition
o. Claude: focus on times of day, mood, immediate sensations of harmony of human emotion and nature
p. Poussin: very versatile, intellectual, storm scenes near his death (very passionate)
q. Classical landscape had order and symmetry, horizontals and verticals, depth
General about Landscapes
n. Why?
i. Increased interest in pastoral subjects, was the current fashion in literature (Sydney, The Tempest, Milton, etc.)
ii. Credibility derived from ancient Greek pastorals (Pliny, Vitruvius)
iii. Philosophy identified nature as a moral force
ix. These works can be viewed as dramatic, rhetoric-using, utopian, metaphysical works (the setting is a landscape for human fate, actions and emotions, a dream of longed for perfect life, the beauty coming from God and man’s ideas)
m. Classical landscape was established in Rome 1600-1610
Grand Tour Painters
c. Piranesi made architecture of Italy famous with his engravings and pioneered the aerial view
d. Pompeo Batoni was the most famous portrait painter in Rome, it was the fashion to have your portrait done on your Tour with ruins in the background
Charles Townley and friends in the Park Street Gallery
Johann Zoffany, 1782

Clythe, the sculpture was Townley’s favorite whom he called his wife
He engraved views of Rome
c. Created an engraved encyclopedia of sorts
1. investigative
2. alphabetized key system
3. many views
4. interior and exterior views
1. he played with scale and view
d. pioneered the bird’s eye view
e. made ruins speak through his engravings
f. he also heavily restored objects, often removing original features
g. He made Italy accessible and familiar to other Europeans
h. His prints were often travel momentos for visitions
i. The prints were often idealized, and those who later saw the real image were often disappointed
j. He in a sense, created memories of Rome for people who had never been there
k. The figures in his engravings act as “tour guides”, they are universal figures
a. “father of history of art,” after Vasari, he was the next big advance in art history
b. also famous for his murder by a jealous boyfriend
c. he considered art as a system
f. Methods :
i. Careful examination
ii. Using an artist’s eye
iii. Analyze technical progress
iv. Define and identify ideal beauty (i.e. connoisseurship)
v. Study of documentary evidence
vi. Avoided problem of decline by focusing on antiquity art
g. Re-examined the cycle of art
i. He wrote a history of art, not history of artists like Vasari
j. His history relates art in erotic terms
k. He used the Laocoon to talk about pain in beauty, emphasizing the facial features
l. He loved the 5th century BC Greece, saying it was so because it was a democracy (he was interested on the reciprocal relationship of art and politics)
m. Main idea: freedom in ancient Greece has repercussions in art that are social, political and sexual
n. This is symbolized by a lack of cloths of the subjects
Greek Vase collection
i. Hamilton had a strange relationship with his wife Emma and Nelson
1. Emma came to him as the mistress of his nephew, Greville
2. Greville dispatched her to Naples to keep Sir William Hamilton from remarrying so Greville would be the heir
3. Then Nelson, an admiral, came to them injured without an arm and blind in one eye
4. A menege-a-trois situation ensued until Nelson returned to England to his wife; Emma was criticized for her increasing weight but it was actually Nelson’s child, Horatia, that was the cause
5. Emma died in Calais of alcoholism
ii. The meidias hydria was one of the most famous vases in his collection
iv. He was the Birtish envoy in Naples, and loved their vases and volcanos
v. The vases came from the excavation of tombs and were prized for their painted decoration (iconography) and their shape
vi. Published his collection in 1766-76 in 4 volumes that was bilingual (French and English)
vii. The vases were put on the page two-dimensionally, losing their shape; the images were placed in a new context and remade in a pristine shape
viii. The volumes didn’t present the images continuously, and there was no order
ix. The volumes were meant to inspire contemporary artists in their own art
x. Sold his collection in 1772
b. The reproduction of Hamilton’s vases on ceramic vases by Wedgwood, in painted murals and furniture
i. Wedgwood was a potter who revived ancient vases
ii. Used a blue on white relief pattern called jasperware, A type of fine-grained, unglazed stoneware
iii. Wedgwood mass produced the antique, using Hamilton’s collection as a basis
iv. Hamilton’s images made their way into tapestries and wall paintings
Artist Educationn in the 18th Century
c. Artists learned from drawing from engravings and as they progressed, from casts; this instilled classical techniques in the young artists
d. After the artist/student progressed from casts, they drew from life, where they corrected reality to the classical ideals
ii. Young Spartans exercising
Degas, 1860-65
Sunday on the Grande Jatte
ii. 1884, Seurat
1. stiff, mechanical figures
2. frieze-like- think Parthenon
Bathers, Asnieres,
1. the calm, the harmony, resembles Poussin and Puvis paintings
Demoiselles d’Avignon
3. Picasso, 1907—this is the classic nude portrait but has a whole different meaning
Who are we? Where do we come from? Where we going?
iii. Gauguin
1. 1897
a. Clear compositional references
Classical elements in Picasso’s style:
i. Sculpted figures
ii. Masklike, Greek faces
iii. Squat figures distinguished his work from classical reproduction
iv. Terracotta, earthly colors not impressionist at all close to earth colors
Nietzsche's Effects
o. Nietzsche
i. In The Birth of Tragedy he argues that the sereneness of Greek art is a sublimation of Dionysian strength, lustfulness and power and primitivisim
ii. Great Greek drama like Sophocles are a perfect mesh of these elements
iii. N glorifies the Dionysian and associates it with life and diminishes any value to Apollonian (remember Death in Venice)
iv. Picasso, similarly, is releasing Dionysian elements

Picasso: s. The image of a minotaur fascinated him because it captured the tension of Dionysis and Apollo
Social Histroy of Art
Luttrell Psalter
Schapiro's Study
Tate exhibit on Wilson and Solkein's placard
The uncanny
f. Freud’s “The Uncanny” (1919) is useful for art historians and culture studies; it is good for describing strange objects or places
i. A special class of fear
ii. Familiar is made unfamiliar
iii. Often produced by repetition
iv. Something repressed which recurs
v. Haunted hauses are an example

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