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Glossary of Art History 1 S04: Early India, China, Japan

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Several(3)overarching traits tend to unite Indian art.
1-Beauty-voluptous forms, ornament, sensuous poses
2-symbolism
3-religious meaningeverywhere
harrappan (Indian) civilization is thought to have "flourished" at the same time as...
Egyptian and Mesopotamian culture
True or False: Sanskrit is now thought to have originated in ancient Harrappan cultre.
False
Upanishads are metaphysical texts that focus on the relationship between the individual soul and the universal soul (Brahman) in three ways:
1-Only Brahman is real and eternal, the material world is illusory
2-existence is cyclical
3-liberation from cycles
The Vedic Period in India introduced a strict ____ system in which social classes were clearly delineated and stratified.
caste
The four noble truths of Buddhism:
1-the worlid is suffering
2-suffering is caused by desire
3-eliminate desre, eliminate suffering
4-eliminate desire-meditation
Briefly explain on emain difference between Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. Which one do you think is more effective and why?
Theravada-focus on self nirvana, ignorant of others' wellfare
Mahayana-compassion;concern for the wellfare/nirvana of others;altruism:self-sacrifice for all
True or False: Stupas are hollow domes containing relics.
True
The term "Axis Mundi" means axis of the ____.
world
In early Buddhist art, the Buddha is never shown. Instead artists used symbols such as: (3)
1-footprints
2-empty throne
3-stupa
In later (and current) Buddhist art, the Buddha is identified by: (3)
1-acetic/monk robes
2-ushnishatop knot/2nd (nirvana) mind
3-elongated earlobes
In Indian art, a Yakshi is a ___ spirit, while a Yaksha is a ___ one.
1-female
2-male
Buddhism reached its greates influence in India during the Gupta period, ___.
300-500 AD
True or False: Hinduism is one single religion.
False
The four main Indian Castes are:
Priests, merchants, laborers, and warriors
China's development has been traced back some ___ years.
8000
China's Yellow river, the site of the oldest Neolithic towns is nicknamed ____ ____ because of its ____.
China's, sorrow, floods
True or False: Confucius (551-479BCE) was a Chinese Scholar/Philosopher who instituted wide-ranging ideals of manners, respect and duty for all toward all in an effort to further refine a successful and stable Chinese culture.
True
One main reason the Silk Road declined was because around 550AD Christian missionaries were able to ____ _____.
smuggle, silkworms
One distinguishing element of Japanese Material culture is a respect for a delight in ____ materials.
natural
_____ is the indigenous religion of Japan, and can best be described as ____.
Shinto, animistic

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