Glossary of Art History 181 with John Cunnally Exam 4 Review
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- This was an Italian Avant-Garde movement that started around 1909 by Fillipo Marinetti.
- Filippo Marinetti?
- Italian Futurist originator. He was a poet promoting a soceiy of supermen. He wrote the Futurists' Manifesto.
- Futurist Manifesto, 1909?
- Written by Fillipo Marinetti. He had a few goals in mind. This detailed that old things are passe, thus reject old traditions and accept speed and power. They also called to destroy art meseums. The term Passeist was coined to label people who believe in the old world.
- Friedrich Nietzsche?
- A great philosopher who believe the bourgeoisie was destructive to human life. He also adopted Nihilism and the Ubermensch.
- The "Super" man translated fro German to English. Described by Nietzsche.
- Written by Nietzsche that humans should reject rules and beliefs and created their own standards.
- Giacomo Balla?
- The Italian Painter involved with Furturism. He used multiplexity in his art.
- The method to show motion in art and science.
- A spiraling motion used in Futurism paintings.
- Umberto Boccioni?
- The Italian Sculptor involved with Futurism. He did the Unique Forms of Continuity in Space in 1913.
- Luigi Russolo?
- The Italian musician involved with Futurism. Invented Intonarumori.
- Means "Noise Makers" in Italian.
- Futurist Evenings?
- A large performance by all of the futurists that happened about once a week. They performed all at the same time. This lasted about a year due to theatres ceasing to rent their building.
- Antonio Sant'Elia?
- The Futurist architect. The most influential on art of the 5. He designed La Citta Nuova in 1914.
- La Citta Nuova, 1914?
- Italian for "The New City" by Antonio Sant'Elia. The buldings were cubists and interlocking. They also had streets that went through the buildings.
- Somewhat of the movement that branched from Futurism to make things look sleek and aerodynamic.
- Constantin Brancusi?
- A famous streamlining designer who sculpted Bird In Space in 1925.
- Henry Dreyfuss?
- Designed the Model 300 Telephone as an employer of Western Electric Company.
- Model 300, 1937?
- Designed by Henry Dreyfuss as an employer of the Western Electric Company.
- Raymond Loewy?
- He is considered the Father of Modern Industrial Design. He lived from 1893-1986. He was trained in fashion design in Paris and then moved to New York. He believed that the design should lead people, but had to do it gradually.
He coined MAYA: Most Advance, Yet Acceptable.
He later was featured in Time Magazine.
Famous for designing the S-1 train, the Huckmobile, and Cold Spot.
- Coldspot Refrigerator, 1935?
- Designed by Raymond Loewy. for Sears & Roebuck.
- Hupmobile, 1934?
- Designed by Raymond Loewy for the Huck Auto Company.
- DC-3, 1935?
- The first streamlined aircraft by Douglas Aircraft Company.
- A phrase coined by Raymond Loewy that means Most Advanced, Yet Acceptable.
- New York World's Fair, 1939?
- Took place in Flushing Meadows, New York. The tagline was, "Come See The World of the Future".
- Fiorello LaGuardia?
- The New York mayor of 1930. He built the Queens Airport (with his bear hands) and organized the World's Fair at Flushing Meadows.
- Trylon and Perisphere?
- The main attraction exhibit inside the NY World's Fair. Inside the perisphere was Democracity.
- The city design into the Trylon and Perisphere. This was a futurist design.
- This was the exhibit title that General Motors used in their 1930 New York World's Fair.
- Norman Bel Geddes?
- The designer of the General Motors Pavillion in their Futurama exhibit.
- The art movement that Van Gogh was considered the father of. It caught on in the Fauve movement in France and in Germany it gained a foothold.
- Sturm und Drang?
- German that translates as "Storm and Stress"
- Edvard Munch?
- Norwegian Expressionist painter who is most famous for The Screen, 1893. He despised women and painted many other pieces that reflected this attitude.
1895 piece, The Dance of Life shows three types of women:
1. The Mother
2. The Lover
3. The Widow
- Ernst Kirchner?
- A Dresden, Germany artist who was a fan out Nietzsche, but thought the superman should go backwards instead of forwards.
Founded the Die Brucke movement.
He painted the Street Scene in Dresden and Marcella.
- Die Brucke?
- A German derivative of the fauve movement founded in 1905 partially by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner who called for man's ability to become the bridge to a more superior superman.
- Emil Nolde?
- A German expressionist painter who used water colors due to him being banned from painting at all.
His works are The Prophet, Candle Dancers, and Seascape.
- Wassily Kandinsky?
- He is the father of abstract art. He was trained as a lawyer in Moscow and settled into Germany.
Although he pieces were scoffed, as a good lawyer, he wrote convincing arguments supporting his works. He painted Composition and Improvisation.
- Madame Blavatsky?
- She was a Russian Princess who was in love with a soldier and joined the army disguised as a man. She travelled to India, Tibet, China, and all over Asia.
From there, she learned about Eastern religions and formed Theosophy.
- A religion that pertained to the wisdom of God. It was connected to Eastern philosophy and artists were especially appealed to it, possibly due to its concept of the Aura.
- Part of Theosophy, there are a few principles that it follows.
Here are some of them:
Squiggles means curiosity
Red & Yellow sparks mean anger and rage.
Sharp clawed means a winning gambler/greed.
Circle with a hole means a loser/depression and dispair.
Auras can be combined to form a collective aura.
- Der Blaue Reiter?
- The Blue Rider/Knight translated from German. It was a collective of abstract artists that included Kandinsky himself.
- Art that is improvise on the spot.
- Au*tom"a*tism (?), n.
The state or quality of being automatic; the power of self-moving; automatic, mechanical, or involuntary action. Metaph. A theory as to the activity of matter.
- Kathe Kollwitz?
- Famous for her woodcut prints to show the stravation in the working class. Some of her works include Starvation and Old Age.
- Max Beckmann?
- A German Expressionist artist that had dark themes in his paintings.
He is famouse for painting The Night and Departure.
- A set of three panels, side by side, displaying pictures or carvings.
This is shown by Max Beckman's The Departure. The left shows the horrors of Europe and the rise of the Nazi party, the middle shows the departure of Europe represented by the Fisher king on the boat, and the right shows Europe descending into fighting and imorral acts.
- Entartete Kunst Exhibition, 1937?
- Meaning "Degenerative Art" in German, it was an exhibit showing art not supported by the Nazi party.
The catalog cover of this shows a sculpture by Otto Freundlich, a Jewish.
- A method in art that reduces the world into its simple building blocks and putting them back together in a harmonious manner.
This proliferated in Holland, Netherlands, and Germany.
- De Stijl?
- "The Style" in Dutch. A magazine produced by Neo-Plasticists to promote their art. Theo Dondoesberg developed the font for the magazine.
It contained articles published became a neo-plasticist.
- There are four basics steps to this:
1. Take a living being (such as a cow).
2. Break it down to simplified masses
3. Figure out where the energy is going.
4. Rearrange to make the piece harmonious.
- Piet Mondrian?
- A Dutch artist who favored Expressionism after graduating art school.
He painted The Red Tree in 1908 and joined the theosophists later one. This evolved his paintings into what he called Neo-Plasticism.
He redid the Red Tree emphasizing verticals as growth and horizontals as gravity.
- Theo Van Doesburg?
- Developed the font for the De Stijl magazine.
- Georges Vantongerloo?
- He developed a 3D De Stijl work in 1921.
- Gerrit Rietveld?
- De Stijl architect. A German doctor hired him to design a house for him in the Netherlands.
- Ilya Repin?
- Part of Russian reconstructionist movement, he painted A Religious Procession in 1880.
- Kasimir Malevich?
- A cubist woodcutter. His words were minimalistic.
Famous for The Black Square that symbolized Suprematism and White on White to show something fading away.
- Shapes such as the square being the most pure form.
- This is an abbreviated form of Agitation and Propaghanda division.
They hired artists to promote the Russian government. They outfitted trains with paintings that would pass towns and put on plays and exhibitions and they stopped.
- El Lissitzky?
- A graphic design for the Agitprop.
He is known for using diagonals.
Famous for the lithograph, "Beat Whites with the Red Wedge" and "Proun".
- A piece by El Lissitzky on mix media that he wanted people to meditate on and cause excitement.
The word's origin is unknown although it is speculated that it was from either the prefix meaning moving forward or a sound that is quick.
- Vladimir Tatlin?
- A Russian architect who designed the Monument to the Third International that was made of Iron and Glass.
It had 4 functions:
1. Great assembly once a year to convene.
2. Secretorial-Office of Secretaries and Bureaucrats to meet once a month.
3. Agitprop to meet once a day.
4. Radio and Comunication with the addition of the presses.
His structure was not built due to the lack of resources.
- Boris Iofan?
- Architect who won the design of the Russian Headquarters.
It was never built due to the depression.
- Socialist Realism?
- A neo-classical artwork that Stalin choose over due to his hatred of Avant Garde Constructivism.
Social Realists later took over Agitprop.
- Walter Gropius?
- He was an architect that went through WWI with Germany.
He was ppointed the head of Weimar, Germany's Art Academy with an Avant Garde mind and changed the academy's name to Weimar Bauhaus.
- German meaning "Building House".
It is a German Art Academy with Constructionvist bent.
It had 4 rules:
1. Simplicity: Circles, squares, basic shapes.
2. Light: Transparencies used.
3. Dynamic: Quick, fast, diagonals.
4. Modern: Aluminum painting w/ enamel paint.
- Lazslo Moholy-Nagy?
- Hired by Gropius to design a new curriculum for the Bauhaus with Principles of Design 2-D and 3-D.
- Herbert Bayer?
- Developed the Bauhaus type font called the Universal. It's characteristics include:
1. All lowercase
2. Used for all media
3. Simple and geometric
4. Swiss-style tagged due to Bayer living in Switzerland during Nazi rule
- Gunta Stolzl?
- Female Weaver & Fabrics for the Bauhaus.
- Marcel Breuer?
- Furniture and metalworker for the Bauhaus. He was famous for..
Wassily Chair - Armchair
1. Bike Based frame.
2. Straps of leather and vinyl to emphasize lightness.
Cesca - Sidechair
1. Named after Daughter
2. Kept light as usual.
- Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe?
- A military orientated man, he submitted his design for the Alexandi Platz in Germany.
His design was made of Pilati, but the government rejected his design due to their conservative nature.
In 1929, he designed the Barcelona Chair, it is considered the icon of the 20th century modernism.
- Steel beams.
- Fathered by Marcel Duchamp, the phrase that was coined was taken by chance, the main principle of the movement.
The word Dada was the first word flipped from a German-French dictionary.
- Marcel Duchamp?
- The father of Dadaism. Famous for his cubist paintings, but also The Bicycle Wheel in 1913 and Fountain in 1917.
- A found work that has been manufactured somewhere else, but the artist uses it as the piece itself or part of it.
- Jean Arp?
- A Swiss Dadaist who sometimes went by Hans Arp.
His works include 1917's Collage Made According to Chance.
- Kurt Schwitters?
- Dadaist who makes Merz bild, construction and architecture.
He left to Norway due to the Gestapo. This happened again and left for London. Then the luftwaffe bombed his home/architecture.
- The name for the construction of the found objects used in art.
- A art movement creating fantasies of the unconscious mind. There are three parts to this:
1. Dreamscape - Dichirico
2. Automatism - Juan Miro
3. Juxtaposition - Openhiem
- Andre Breton?
- Surrealist writer who wrote its manifesto.
- Sigmund Freud?
- German psychologist who wrote several books of the unconscious mind. He was a large inspiration to Surrealists.
- Giorgio Di Chirico?
- An Italian painter whose techniques were adopted by the Surrealists.
His dreamscrape feelings were favored among the Surrealists.
- Where things look like fantasy. Either nightmarish or pleasent.
- Joan Miro?
- Surrealist who put Automatism emphasis in some of his works.
- Meret Oppenheim?
- Artist whose surrealist works included juxtapositions.
- Putting two unlike things together.
- Cell-like structures.
- Salvador Dali?
- The master of surrealism. He combined all three elements together well.
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