Glossary of Art History 181 with John Cunnally Exam 3 Review
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- A fresh, direct, powerful portrayl of nature. Lines do not exist and colors are used more than anything else.
- Claude Monet?
- French Impressionist painter.
- Somewhat lead by Paul Cezanne. He was dissatisfied with Impressionists around 1870. Emphaiszed that structure was more important in the painting than the objects.
- Paul Cezanne?
- Somewhat the leader of the Post Impressionist movement.
- Sir Charles Lyell, 1830?
- An English geologist who did not support catastrophism. He believed in Uniformitarianism. He wrote the Principles of Geology.
- A belief that changes in nature tend to be gradual. Somewhat a reactionary respone to catastrophism.
- Dmitri Mendeleyev, 1869?
- Wrote the Principles of Chemistry. Very independent minded. The story is that he was a poor Siberian. His mother found out that Czars gave out scholarships to poor people, so she and he walked to Moscow and St. Petersburg for them. When he finally received one, his mother dropped dead from exhaustion.
- Vincent Van Gogh?
- A Dutch Post-Impressionist painter. Somewhat of a scary guy. Known for cutting off his ear and giving it to a lady. Lived in Sother France at Arles.
- A termed coined in France that showed the French craze for Japanese woodcuts.
- Japanese pop art. In translates at "Floating World". The meaning is that of celebrities in Japan that would become popular briefly.
- A type of woodcut print that uses multiple woodcuts for different colors.
- A famous Jaronobu artist in the 1830s. He did famous places in Japan as subjects. He is most famous for Mount Fuji from the Sea.
- Alphonse Mucha?
- Art Nouveau artist in the 1890s most famous for a a Beer Ad. He uses the characteristic whiplash curves.
- Art Nouveau?
- French meaning New Art. Sort of a Rococo Revivalism in the late 1800s.
- Aubrey Beardsley?
- A English Art Nouveau artist. His works were most famous for illustrating Salome by Oscar Wilde.
- A play by Oscar Wilde based on a passage in the bible. St. John the Baptist preaches against the King Harod, Queen Hermonious, and Salome. Salome dances for her father. With her father impressed, he grants her anything she wants. She wishes John the Baptist's head. Wilde uses this as a base of the story implying that she wished to be John's significant other.
- Femme fatale?
- A femme fatale is a stock character, a villainous woman who uses the malign power of sexuality in order to ensnare the hapless hero. The phrase is French for "fatal woman". In "Salome" by Oscar Wilde, Salome is the femme fatale.
- French for "end of the century", it refers specifically to the end of the 19th century, and its contemporary art movements of Symbolism, Decadence, and Art Nouveau. It connotes absinthe, edible hashish, sick men, and naked, predatory women.
- Hector Guimard?
- Famous for his Art Nouveau furniture. His furniture were biomorphic and mast produced.
- Something in nature with a certain force, but with structure, as opposed to Romanticism's anti-structure.
- Elan Vital?
- French that translates to "life force that flows".
- Friedrich Nietzsche?
- He denounced the moderned world which led to conformity. He introduced and popularized Nihilism. This was a philosophy that nothing is true or permanent and everyone should make their own laws, beliefs, etc.
- This was a philosophy that nothing is true or permanent and everyone should make their own laws, beliefs, etc.
- Louis Tiffany?
- An American Art Nouveau artist. He took Favrille and ran with it. His type of lamps were popular with his family's company, Tiffany's.
- A tinting of the glass with metal oxides.
- William Morris?
- Wrote epics about knights and other middle age stories. He started Morris & Company around 1890s to go against mass production and started handcrafted furniture. They made heavy and slab-like furniture. He also copied English furniture, especially those from Sussex, England.
- Arts and Crafts Movement?
- The anti-mass production movement that supported handmade everything for the most part and yearned for the Middle Ages of production.
- Dante Gabriel Rossetti?
- A painter of the Pre-Raphaelites. Famouse for The Meadow in 1860. He hated Victorian houses and hired Phillip Red to design the Red House at Bexley Heath in 1859.
- A movement that was into designs before the artist Raphael. Essentially art and crafts in the middle ages.
- Philip Webb?
- Designed the Red House @ Bexley Heath in 1859. Hired by William Morris.
- Kelmscott Press?
- A pressing plant in 1890 opened by Morris & Company pressing Artistic and Illustrative books. Very medieval.
- Charles Mackintosh?
- He popularized the Morrison style in Scotland, especially in Glasgow, specifically their tearooms.
- Glasgow Tea Room, 1898
- I need more info.
- Gustav Stickley?
- He produced Morrison style furniture in America. He also produced the magazine Craftsman from 1901-1916. This reflected the Arts & Crafts movement. This went out of business due to knock offs proliferating.
- Craftsman Magazine?
- The first magazine. It help promote Stickley's furniture.
- Mission Style?
- I NEED MORE INFO.
- Charles Frederick Worth?
- An English fashion designer. He moved to France in the 1870s and opened the House of Worth. He was responsible for the Princess line of clothing.
- Princess Line?
- Designed by Charles Frederick Worth around the 1900s. It features three things:
1. Acted as a visiting gown.
2. Pigeon breast
3. Emphasis on the female characteristics (you can see their figure more)
- Gibson Girl?
- Coined in 1895 by an American named Carles Dana Gibson. He thought American women were move active than their European counterpart. It was a slight variation of the Princess line. More casual and Eastman Kodak capitalized this further with influencing women to purchase this as an excuse to go outdoors.
- Frank Lloyd Wright?
- Lived from 1869 to 1959. He graduated from the University of Wisconsin with an Engineering Degree. Instead of following the footsteps of others and going to Europe for architecture, he went to Louis Sullivan's firm instead. Famous for Robie House which featured a prarie style Robie was famous for cofounding Schwinn bicycles. He descended from New England and reflected their manner where houses were made for stability for not just structure, but in family as well.
- Cantilever is an engineering term referring to a construction technique in which loads are carried by a beam to a strong mounting point. The beam forms a lever, which carries the load by being held in position by the mount, turning the loads into torque on the mount. Cantilever construction allows for long structures without external bracing.
Cantilevers are widely found in construction, notably in bridges and balconies. Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater used a cantilever to project the large balcony out into "free space".
- Prairie Style?
- Popularized by Frank Lloyd Wright, it was more emphasis on long horizontal lines in architecture to show flatness of the building to go along with the country, especially in Illinois.
- Glasgow Tea Room, 1898?
- The furniture were really square. They had ladderback chairs that had more slats than needed since it went down to the legs. This served as a functional motif that turns decorative.
- Pablo Picasso?
- Born in Spain in 1881. His father was a high school art teacher. This gave Picasso a good foundation of art. Supposedly his first word was "pencil". He is also quoted saying "I drew as an adult at an early age, but could only draw like a child as an adult."
One of his early famous works is "The First Communion" drawn at 16 years of age.He was an alter boy, his father was the preist, and his sister took communion. He then left for Paris in 1901.
- Blue Period?
- From 1902-3. "The Soup" had tones of sadness with shades of blue and drew poor people.
- Circus people in France.
- Rose Period?
- From 1904 to 1906. He used more Pastel colors and showed performers such as saltimbanques. In his painting, he was dressed as a harlequinn. He saw a relationship between the artist and performers.
- Henri Matisse?
- He was the most famous contemporary artist in the 1900s in France. He took post-impressionism into Fauvism. He did "The Boneur de Livre" or the Joy of Life in 1906.
- Fauvism was essentially an expressionist style (see Expressionism) characterized by distortion of forms and exuberant color. Although short-lived (1905-8), it was basic to the evolution of 20th-cent. art, as it was the precursor to cubism
- Gertrude Stein?
- An American writer living in France possibly due to her lesbianism. She would open a salon in her apartment on Wednesdays and art and scholarly intellectuals would gather there.
- Henry Kahnweiler?
- He criticized Picasso's Demoiselle d'Abignom and suggested Picasso should becoome a cartoonist.
- Georges Braque?
- He shared a studio with Picasso. Criticized Damoiselle d'Abignom by saying "Picasso is trying to change our diet to gunpowder and gasoline." He later worked with Picasso for 6 to 7 years until WWI. He invited Picasso to join his side while visiting L'Astaque there Fauvists went to paint in the summer. In 1908, Braque painting "Houses of L'Astaque". A critic of this piece coined Cubism.
- The term was coined by an French art critic. It has three qualities:
1. Linear network. Everything ties together.
2. Overlapping and Intersecting planes.
3. Ambiguous space. Broken space so relationships are hard to identify.
- He drew "Carceri d'Invenzione" or The Prisms of the Imaginations. This was inspired by Cubism.
- Carceri d'Invenzione, 1761
- "Prisms of Imagination" by Piranesi
- Marcel Duchamp?
- He started out as a Fauvist then transisted into Cubism. He and others at the time were intersted in the 4th Dimension, time. This was reflected in "Nude Descending a Staircase". It had demultiplication which was copying the nude many times as she was in motion with lines to connect them.
In 1912, American artists came wanting to present a European Modern Art show. The Armory Show had Duchamp's piece as the big one which gathered controversy throughout. Artnews magazine had a contest to "find the nude". Even Teddy Roosevelt wrote about the painting, recognizing it as a Nahvahoe Cachina.
His piece was bought by Walter Aronsberg for $700 which is now in the Philadelphia MOMA.
- Fernand Leger?
- He did "The City of 1919" in 1919. It is an 8' x 9' piece that was to reflect the future of the city. This was leading towards futurism and robots.
- Karel Capek?
- A playwriter most famous for R.U.R. in 1920.
- R.U.R., 1920?
- By Karel Capak. This stood for Rossems Universal Robots based on the word Robatta in Czech. The play is about the future being ran by mechanic robots who turn against its masters, the humans.
- Wilbur and Orville Wright, 1903?
- Invented the aeroplane. This was looked as a cubist invention due to its qualities.
- Henry Ford?
- Born in Deerborn in 1863 and lived a relatively long live. He hated his family's occupation as a farmer and left for Detroit at 16 for an apprenticeship in engineering. At this time Internal Combustion was invented by Daimler.
- Model T, 1908?
- An efficiently built car due to the assembly line and management skills used. Although not a Cubist, Zeitgeist gave it its look. It eventually sold 15 millino from 1908-1927 due to low prices, the installment plan, and used cars later on.
- Assembly Line?
- The idea came from the disassembly line for ripping apart animals, this method was later used to assemble the Model T efficiently.
- Frederick Taylor?
- Raised in upper-middle class Philedelphia, he was interested in steel foundaries, which was uncommon for his class. He was hired to manage Bethlehem Steel in 1894. Later he wrote "Principles of Scientific Management".
- Principles of Scientific Management, 1911?
- He wrote this book that basically reflected the working environment he was given to manage and the soluctions he came up with. The main problems were 3 hour lunch breaks, large, slow tools, and long walking distances for the workers. This was remedied with 1 hour lunch breaks with two 15 minute coffee breaks, smaller, easier tools, and resources placed near by the worker.
- Carl Fisher?
- A car sales from Indianapolis. He built the Indianopolis Speedway which is also known as the Indy 500. He planned on building the Lincoln Highway in 1913.
- Lincoln Highway, 1913?
- A highway system that was estimated at $10 million at the time. He sought business men for funding. Henry Ford refused involvement due to his conservative/Laissez-faire attitude. Goodyear Tires took part. Thier incentive was more tires being sold due to more use. Asphalt (made from petroleum by products) was used to cover the roads. The government also made their own highway called the 1945 Rural Interstate Highway.
- Clarence Stein and Henry Wright?
- They designed the first suburb based around a highway. The design had foot traffic seaparte from road traffic. The footpaths were later eliminated for putting more houses.
- Radburn, N.J., 1929?
- The first suburb designed by Clarence Stein & Henry Wright.
- Cul de Sac?
- Another term for "Dead End" coined by Stein & Wright for aethetic purposes.
- Bill Levitt?
- Formed Levittown suburb. His father made profits from suburban neighborhooods, but by the time Bill was able to do the same, World War II happened. After the war, he bought land with friends in New Jersey and built homes for $79,990. This reflected by the Servicemen's Readjustment Act/GI Bill.
- Levittown, NY, 1946?
- A suburb built in New York after WWII. It had cookie cutter homes that followed an assembly line-like process. Each house sold for $79,990.
- Serviceman's Readjustment Act, 1944?
- Also known as the GI Bill, this has three parts:
1. Medical: Hospital system/VA hospitals free for veterans.
2.Education: Free four years of college to prevent economic problem that could lead to lack of jobs.
3. Housing Loan: Covers mortages up to $80,000.
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