Glossary of Art History 181 with John Cunnally Exam 1 Review
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- Frank Lloyd Wright?
Famous designer. Specifically an architect. Designer's creative ideas/process: 1. Thinking, 2. Drawing, 3. Model making, 4. Finished Product.
- Edgar Kaufmann House (a.k.a. "Fallingwater"), Bear Run, Pa. 1936
- It is a townhouse located in Beer Creek. Pennsylvania Nature Conservancy incepted the house 20 years later. Wright designed the furniture as well.
- Dyola impluvium house?
- Located in West Africa & Ghana. Characteristics include:
Adobe structure (mud & clay).
Grass & Thatch roof.
Used as a home by about 100 people/1 clan.
- Guild system?
- The guild itself is a group of craftsmen who organize their craft for quality control, and other tasks. The system itself pertain of three elements: The apprentice, the journeyman, the master. Usualy conservative and shunned individual innovations.
- Joins the guild at the age of 12 or 13. Usually does simple tasks, such as cleaning and aiding the master while slowly picking up lessons in the crafts.
- Journeyman follows the apprentice. More skilled and is usually left to do large tasks of craftwork by the master. May either design and create a masterpiece to present to the guild to go onto the master status, or may stay as a journeyman and learned from other masters.
- Follows the journeyman in the guild system. Usually should set up shop based on the craft mastered. Taught apprentices and journeymen.
- Leonardo da Vinci?
- Rennaisance artist. Famous for his inventions as well. Created the Vitruvian Man.
- Vitruvian Man, 1500?
- Done in Pen & Ink by Da Vinci. Based on writings by Vitruvius. Vitruvius was an architect & writer during Augusts's rule (around 10 BC). He wrote a book that emphasized geometry as being divine images of God. The man should form a rectangle with arms out and legs together, but they also form a circle with the arms bent up at a 30 degree angle with the legs spread as well. Da Vinci made this with his face as the Vitruvian Man.
- In academic philosophy, the idea that ideas or abstract qualities are the most real thing, and that physical reality is less real (being an illusion or a reflection of the true world of ideas). The philosopher Plato is the most famous idealist in history, and his Theory of Forms inspired much of subsequent idealism. Contrast materialism.
Ideas never change in the "real world" of God. Material things are imperfect imitations of ideal objects in the mind of God.
- Garden of Academus, Athens?
- Also called "The Academy". A garden where Academas was buried. Intelligent discussions and debates took place in the garden. He was an Attic hero who disclosed to Castor and Pollux exactly where Theseus was holding their sister Helen prisoner when they were searching for her throughout Greece.
- Giorgio Vasari?
- A painter, sculptor, architect, and writer. Famous for the Uffizi and the multivolume book, "The Lives of the Artists". Coined the word "design" with disegno.
Hated the guild system because of two reasons: Very unplutonic/did not involve with ideas, and he rather teach design.
He believed that artists were too dumb to think or understand plutonic ideas.
- "Lives of the Artists," 1550?
- A multivolume book written by Giorgio Varsari. He wrote that art goes through Revolutions. He wrote about artists, such as Michealangelo as the greatest artist because he understood design through his achievements (Sistine Chapel, David, and the Dom of St. Peters Cathedral).
- Egotistical artist. Vasari claimed he understood design through his ability and masterpieces. These are through his painting of the Sistine Chapel, the sculpture of David, and the architecture of Dome of St. Peter's Cathedral.
- Uffizi Palace, Florence?
- Designed by Vasari in 1560. Uffizi means offices, and they served as that for the Medici family. Vasari also convinced the family to hold a few art classes based on design in there and called it Academia.
- Accademia del Disegno, 1563?
- Started by Vasari. Taught design.
- Louis XIV (ruled 1643-1715)?
- King of France. Believed that France was the best, thus he constantly invaded countries, made France more unified as it was being ran by dukedoms and sections. He declared himself as "Roisoliel" or Sun King. He disliked religion, but he was able to control priests and he persecuted the protestants (known as Hugonauts). He unified the arts by estabilishing the Royal Academy, or "Academy Royale"
- Academie Royale, 1648?
- Established by King Louis XIV. It had three functions: 1. Education, 2. Exhibition - excercising art. 3. Competition - Encouraged artists to compete and receive government prizes/awards.
- Nicolas Poussin?
- Roman painter. Appointed by King Louis X1V to paint the Rape of Sabine Women in 1640. He thought France was the greatest country on Earth. Later painted the Battle Of Phoeceon in 1648.
- Rape of the Sabine Women?
- By Nicholas Poissin in 1640. Based on the story of Romulus and Remus who stole women from Sabine, a nearby town. These women would later mother Roman children as the city became an empire.
- Burial of Phocion?
- Painted i n1648 by Nicholas Poussin. The story goes that Phocion was a politician with enemies that spread rumors about him. This led to his execution of untrue rumors. His body did not have a proper burial and it was in fact just people dumping him off of a stretcher into the woods for the animals to feed off of him.
- Ecole des Beaux Arts?
- France's "School of Fine Arts". It was the most prestigious school where the students learned at the Great Central Hall for their first year, drew nudes their second, while choosing their options for the next two years (painting, sculpting, decorating, etc.).
- Prix de Rome?
- The prize won from the competition. There were three winners one from painting, sculptin, and architecture. The prize was studying art in Rome for a year.
- Villa Medici, Rome?
- The place the three student winners of the Academy Royale competition lived for a year to study Roman art.
- The competition held in France judging three different type of art (painting, sculpting, and architecture). The winners receive the Prix de Rome.
- Alexandre Cabanel?
- One of the Salon winners. His winning painting was titled "Cleopatra Testing Her Poisons" in 1887.
- William Bouguereau?
- Painted the Birth of Venus in 1879. He wont the Prix de Rome for this.
- Rosa Bonheur?
- The first woman to win the Prix de Rome. She won with "Horse Fair" in 1853. It was about 8'x25'. She also dressed as a man to paint the horses. She was elected to the Legion of Honor eventually.
- Cornelius Vanderbilt?
- An American entrepreneur who bought the "Horse Fair" by Rosa Bonheur
- Buffalo Bill Cody?
- He invited Rosa Bonaheur to his show to draw horses there.
- Palace of Versailles, 1669?
- Lous XIV's living quarters. It was originally a hunting lodge for the king, but he rebuilt it to show his superiority.
- Jules Mansart?
- He was responsible for the architecture of the Palace of Versailles. He reserved the third floor for servants. Roman arches and Greek columns were used as well as a Classical design.
- Charles Le Brun?
- He was responsible for the interior of the Palace of Versailles. He emphasized the sun, especially Apollo, the Greek god of light. He also had the "Galerie des Glace" which featured large panels of glass not possible at that time.
- Andre Le Notre?
- He was responsible for the landscaping of the Palace of Versailles. He wanted to emphasize Louis XIV's control over nature. Thus used Parterre and topiary. Avenues of trees were used as well display the sun rising between them. He had the best hydrolic engeineer for the Latona fountain (the Greek mother of Apollo). Also for the Fountain of Ceres, the Greek sister of Apollo and also the Agriculture goddess.
- Galerie des Glaces?
- The gallery of glass that Lebrun made. It was mostly large flat sheets of glass that were almost impossible at the time.
- Used by Lebrun to show the rising of the king.
- Shaped garden that Lenotre used.
- Shaped bushes/shrubbery.
- Avenues of Trees. This was used by Lebrun to show the sun rising inbetween the trees.
- Louis XV (1715-1774)?
- He believed that his lifetime should be modest and fun loving. A time for relaxation. Rococo style is also referred as King Louis XV style.
- A style that relied on being lavish, luxious, and decorative. This featured ormalu and cyma curves.
- One of the terms described when referring to rococo.
- "Time Ghost" or "the spirit of the times".
- Another term used to describe the rococo style.
- A language of forms.
- motif - A consistent or recurrent conceptual element, usually a figure or design. In an architectural or decorative pattern, a motif is employed as the central element in a work, or it is repeated either consistently or as a theme with variations. (pr. mo-teef') Also see tesselation.
- A writing desk. The one shown is from 1750.
- A chest.
- Cyma Curve?
- "Wave" in Greek. S shaped curve.
- A cabinet.
- "The icing on the cake", meaning the decorative part of the rococo style.
- A form of furniture leg that curves outward and then narrows downward into an ornamental foot, characteristic of Queen Anne and Chippendale furniture.
- 1. A coarse stiff fabric of cotton or horsehair used especially to line and stiffen hats and garments.
2. A petticoat made of this fabric.
3. A hoop skirt.
- 1. A framework of wire, bone, or other material formerly used to expand a woman's skirt at the hips.
2. A skirt or an overskirt puffed out at the hips.
- Bows used to make the gown more complicated.
- Madame de Pompadour?
- The queen of fashoin in 1750.
She was King Louis XV's girlfriend.
- Francois Boucher?
- A French painter that pointed Callisto in 1775. He was a "Follower of Diana".
- Claude Clodion?
- He specialized in play/erotic sculpture. He sculpted the Nymph and the Sader in 1770.
- A porcelin factory that made flower vases. These fetured Putti or Putto (playful child gods) and Cream & Blue & Gold (Blucelest).
- Bleu Celeste?
- Cream, Blue, and Gold that would be ornamenting several things such as porcelin.
- Children gods.
- Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier?
- Paper makers that were playing with paper bags and saw one of them float instead of being burned up. This lead to the Hot Air Balloon in 1782.
They tried this with a balloon made of silk and sent a servant up.
1783 they had a demo balloon go over France that was decorated in the Rococo style. Louis XVI ruled at that time.
- Thomas Chippendale?
- A cabinet maker from England from 1740-1754.
He had open, airy, less decorative furniture.
- A drawer that was produced from 1750-80s by Thomas Chippendale.
- Broken Pediment?
- An architectual motif used in furniture, especially those by Chippendale.
- A tall writing desk by Thomas Chippendale.
- The art of creatively arranging letterforms on a page to be printed, usually using a recognised typeface, in order to achieve a combination of both aesthetic and functional goals.
- In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of letter designs, making a complete alphabet, and generally intended to be made into a font for printing or use on a computer display.
- John Baskerville?
- English printer who created the Baskerville font.
- The curves on the ends of the lettered font.
- The Gentleman and Cabinetmaker's Director, 1754?
- A book Thomas Chippendale put out due to the high demand of furniture he had to build. This became a success in England and America.
- A process of taking out iron from its ore.
1. Layer of coal in the furnace.
2. Iron ore on top.
3. Coal on top of that.
4. Iron ore on top of that.
5. Brick up the entrace with holes on teh top.
6. Set fire for a few days.
- Places that smelted.
- Pig Iron?
- An impure form of iron. It made a big puddle that looked like a pig or sow. This was to be purified.
- Cast Iron?
- Purified iron from pig iron. With this, you can shape and mold it.
- Franklin Stove, 1744
- Invented by Ben Franklin. It was made out of iron.
- Abraham Darby?
- He was from an ironmonger family.
His grandfather innovated smelting. He was part of making the Iron Bridge in 1779.
- Thomas Pritchard?
- He made the Iron Bridge of 1779.
He used bolts and beams to form an arch. He had 5 arches side by side while imitating stone arch bridges. It was 100 feet long and 10-12 feet wide.
He made a mold for the Royal Academy of the Arts, a competing art school to go against the French.
- James Hargreaves?
- He was an English that invented the Spinning Jenny in 1776.
- Spinning Jenny?
- A machine that spun web. Invented by James Hagreaves.
- Spinning Mule?
- An innovation of the Spinning Jenny. An investor took the Spinning Jenny but had it powered by a water wheel.
Thus factories were placed near the waters and child were handling the labor due to their small size.
- These were anti-factory laborers who would throw their shoes into the machines. The word sabotaged was coined by this event.
The lord of Liverpool send an army to fight the luddites.
The word luddite came from Ned Lud who rised and sdestroyed a mast either that or King Lud.
- This word came from Sabots. The Sabots would throw their sabot shoes into the machine.
- Lord Liverpool?
- He was on the factories' side of the business and sent an army to fight against the luddites.
- Thomas Malthus?
- A writer that defending the industrial age.
He wrote Essay on Population.
- David Ricardo?
- A British who wrote about the economic book, Pricinples of Political Economy.
- Principles of Political Economy, 1817?
- A book written by David Ricardo defending the industrial age through economics.
- Iron Law of Wages?
- Where wages will level off to an amount of subsistance due to the amount of workers available.
- Robert Owen?
- A working class man, who rose to managing factories.
He left to New Landark, Scotland with 2000 people to start his social experiment. Children 10 years and younger could not work and went to school while he reduced working hours. In 1820 he was kicked out after 20 years.
He went to the US in New Harmony, ID to experiment again.
- New Lanark, Scotland, 1800?
- Where Robert Owen established his village of workers who supported themselves.
He was kicked out 20 years later.
- New Harmony, Indiana, 1825?
- Another experimental town that Robert Owen tried a socialism based community in.
- James Watt?
- A Scottish who invent the steam engiine in 1769.
- Boiler, piston, crankshaft, flywheel, governor?
- Parts of the steam engine.
- Served to regulate the steam engine.
- Robert Fulton's Clermont, 1807?
- A steamboat
- Omnibus Enterprise, 1828?
- Where the word "bus" came from. What it meant was for everyone.
- George Stephenson's Locomotion, 1825?
- Where train came from. Train is a parade of people in single file.
Iron rails evoved from wooden railes. They were made from rolling mills and viaducts.
- Rolling mill?
- The machine that would make iron rails pushing them into two rollers.
- Liverpool and Manchester Railroad, 1829?
- The railway that effected other railrods lines all over Londer and the USA.
- Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1830?
- This railroad had over 2000 miles laid down.
- Matthias Baldwin?
- Baldwin locomotives came from him, which he has designed to be the most prominent train design.
- Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper, 1831?
- The machine did about 10 times more acerage and eventually he started the International Harvester in Chicago.
- James Salisbury?
- He invented ground beef due to his concern for a meat diet.
- Jacques Louis David?
- A Rom Prize winner in painting for the 1785 work "The Oath of the Horatii"
This had sons of horatius where Livy, a roman historian emphasized heroism.
It had a different style.
- Linear vs. Painterly?
- The topic of sharp lines defining everything versus a color based painting.
- Bastille, 1789?
- The Storming of the Bastille happened.
- A sculpting relief form.
- The arrangement of light and dark parts in a work of art, such as a drawing or painting, whether in monochrome or in color.
- Emphasized the sharpness of art with themes of a classical and linear style.
- Dr. Joseph Guillotin?
- Inventor of the Gillotine.
- La Guillotine, 1792?
- A outlet of execution for aristocrats while at the time the peasents were hung.
Hanging was abolished later.
- Jean Paul Marat?
- Leader of the Jacobins, he was a left wing writer before the French Revolution.
Thus, he hid a lot in the sweres and caught skin disease. He had to stay in the bathub while signing an execution list. Eventually, Charlotte Corday assasinated Marat.
- A political club that was named after a Parisian word for Dominicans.
- Charlotte Corday?
- The assassin of Marat.
- This was a painting by Michaelangelo that Jacques Louis David based the Death of Marat on.
- Napoleon Bonaparte?
- In 1800, he came into power and declared himself Emperor with the Empire system.
He appointed David to the Ecole des Beauxart.
He commissioned Antonio Conova to sculpt his (Napoleon's) sister.
- Marquis de Condorcet?
- A French Writer who wrong The Progress of the Human Mind.
- The Progress of the Human Mind, 1795?
- By Marquis de Condorcet, he writes how history falls into 10 major Ages with the French Revolution being the greatest and the last stop.
- An artist who brings revolutionary ideas.
Originally it was the first soldiers to pave the way for the rest...in war.
- Empire Style?
- A neoclassical style, primarily in clothing and the decorative arts, prevalent in France during the first part of the nineteenth century, obtaining its name from the "First Empire" of France (1804-1815), in which Napoleon I (Napoleon Buonaparte, 1769-1821) was the emperor.
Especially in furniture.
- A Greek tunic, the essential (and often only) garment of both men and women, the other being the himation or mantle; a kind of cape.
- Thomas Sheraton?
- Designed a popular chair that had a decorated urn and straight uphostery.
He wrote a pattern book called "The Cabinet Maker's & Uphosterers' Drawing Book."
- The Cabinet Maker's and Upholsterer's Drawing Book, 1791?
- A book written by Thomas Sheraton that explains how to build his style of cabinets and furniture.
- Regency Style?
- The style in England during the period of George tye IV.
- Federal Style?
- The American style of furniture during Napoleon's era.
- Josiah Wedgwood?
- Ceramic maker that specialized in Etrurian and Jasperware.
- Etruria, 1768?
- By Josiah Wedgewood.It is a cermaic.
- A type of Ceramic that Josiah Wedgewood specialized.
- Giambattista Bodoni?
- He had designed the neo-classical font. Where It had more severe athin and thick lines. It was Tall and austere and hardly curvy serifs.
- Antonio Canova?
- Sculpted Napoleon's sister Pauline's statue.
- Pauline Borghese?
- Napoleon's Italian brother-in-law who had a sculpture of his wife made by Antonio Conova in 1808. It has her holding an apple based on Roman mythology.
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