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Glossary of Arboviruses

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What family do EEE, VEE, and WEE belong to? What is the structure of their virion and genome?
*togaviruses (alphavirus genus)
*enveloped icosahedral nucleocapsid
*(+) ssRNA
What is the vector for WEE/VEE/EEE? Describe the path of these viruses after transmission from the vector.
After transmission from a mosquito, the virus moves from the blood to endothelial cells and then into nerve cells.
Describe the clinical presentation of EEE.
*10-12 day prodromal febrile illness
*fever, stiff neck, mental status changes
*seizures and coma are possible
*progression to encephalitis carries a 50-75% mortality
How does EEE cause pathogenesis?
The infection induces apoptosis in host cells.
What is the reservoir for EEE? Why is this fact useful for epidemiological purposes?
Wild birds are asymptomatically infected and serve as a reservoir. Sentinal birds can thus be used to track disease patterns.
What family does St. Louis encephalitis belong to? What is its virion and genome structure?
*flavivirus
*enveloped, icosahedral nucleocapsid
*(+) ssRNA
Other than a subclinical infection, what are the three main manifestations of SLE?
1.Encephalitis
2.Meningitis
3.Febrile headache
What patient population is prone to a more severe disease course with SLE?
The elderly - they become symptomatic and have mortality from SLE that is ten times that of younger people.
What are the components of the sylvatiic and the urban cycles of transmission of SLE?
*sylvatic cycle includes mosquito vector, bird reservoir/amplifying host, and human host
*urban cycle includes mosquito vector and human host
During what time of year is SLE most likely to be seen? About how many cases are seen in the US annually?
*July-September (coinciding with mosquito prevalance)
*~50 cases/year
How is SLE diagnosed?
*PCR detection of virus in blood, CSF or tissue
*ELISA detection of specific IgM
*immunofluoresence of SLE Ag in urine or CSF
How is SLE treated? How can it be prevented?
*treatment is supportive only
*there is no vaccine so prevention is limited to vector control
What family does West Nile virus belong to?
Flaviviruses
How is WNV transmitted?
Most often from the bite of a viremic mosquito but has also been transmitted via contaminated organs or blood products.
What are the ramifications of WNV infection during pregnancy?
Intrauterine infection and congenital abnormalities.

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