Glossary of Approaching Democracy chapter 11
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- actual groups
- interest groups that have already been formed; they have headquarters, an organizational structure, paid employees, membership lists, and the like.
- collective action
- the political action of individuals who unite to influence policy
- according to james madison in THe Federalist, no 10: "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse or passion or interests"
- free riders
- members who invest no money or time in an interest group but still share in the collective benefits of group action
- grassroots activity
- teh rallyin of group members, as well as the public, behind a lobby's cause
- a condition in which major government initiatives are impossible because a closely balanced partisan division in the government structure, accompanied by an unwillingness to work together toward compromise, produces a stalemate
- group maintenance
- activities by an interest group designed to affect policy. includes enrolling new members and providing benefits for them
- interest roups
- formal organizations of people who share a common outlook or social circumstance and who band together in the hope of influencing government policy
- iron triangles
- informal three-way relationships that develop among key legislative committees, the bureaucracy, and interest groups with a vested interest in the policies created by those committees and agencies
- issue advertisements
- advertisements in a political campaign funded by an interest group advocating a position on an issue but technically not supporting a specific candidate
- the formal, organized attempt to influence legislation, usually through direct contact with legislators or their staff
- groups of people joined in a cyber-society for political purposes
- policy entrepreneurs
- leaders who invest in, and who create the conditions for, a potential group to become an actual interest group. ralph nader stands as a classic example of a policy entrepreneur.
- policy networks
- networks characterized by a wide-ranging discussion of options as issues are resolved, ocnveying a more inclusive and less conspiratorial image of the policy process than iron triangles do
- political action committees (PACs)
- committees formed as the fund-raising and financial distribution arm of specific interest groups.
- potential groups
- interest groups that could form under the right circumstances; as yet, they have no substantive form and my never have one, but they cannot be discounted by political participants
- public interest groups
- groups that focus not on the immediate economic livelihood of their members, but on achieving a broad set of goals that represent their members' vision of the collective good. examples include the national taxpayers union, the league of women voters, and common cause
- soft money
- campaign contributions directed to advaning the interests of a political party or an issue in general, rather than a specific candidate.
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