Glossary of Applied Behavior Analysis Ch 1-4, 6

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applied behavior analysis
a way to understand and predict human behavior
it must account for a substantial quantity of behavior
it can be tested in some way
predictive utility
provides reliable answers about what people are likely to do under certain circumstances
the simplest answer will account for the observed phenomena
biophysical explanations
human behavior is result of interactions among four bodily fluids (physical)
Genetic and Hereditary Effects
behavioral characteristics have some hereditary basis
categories of temperament
activity level
approach or withdrawal
intensity of reaction
threshold of responsiveness
quality of mood
attention span
biochemical explanations
result from excesses or deficiencies of various substances found in the body
Usefulness of biophysical explanations
down syndrome
Fair on Verifiability
Poor on Inclusiveness, Predictive & Parsimony
Developmental Explanations
based on fixed, developmental sequences
Stage theory of Cognitive Development
tendency to adapt the environment to enhance personal functioning
tendency to change behavior to adapt to the environment
balance between assimilation and accommodation
Cognitive Stages
sensorimotor - birth to 1-1/2 yrs
preoperational representational thinking- 1-1/2 to 4 yrs
preoperational intuitional thinking - 5 to 7 yrs
concrete operations - 7 to 11 yrs
formal operations - 12 to adulthood
Usefulness of Developmental Theories
offer general information about average people
Good - inclusiveness
Fair- Predictive
Poor - Verifiability, Parsimony
tendency to perceive things in an organized fashion
Gestalt principles
Pragnanz - hint: proofreading
students must construct their own knowledge
cognitive field theory or field theory
social behavior as based on factors within the person's life space (environment) as it is perceived by the person and as it affects the person's behavior
Usefulness of Cognitive Theory
good - inclusiveness
poor - verifiability, predictive, and parsimony
Behavioral explanation
human bhavior (adaptive and maladaptive) is learned
positive reinforcement
relationship between beh and consequen--
demonstrated when a behavior is followed by a consequence that increases the behavior's rate of occurrence
negative reinforcement
rate of a behavior's occurrence increases when some (usually unpleasant) environmental condition is removed or reduced in intensity
technical term to describe a specific relationship -- occurs only when the preceding behavior decreases
only if the rate of occurrence of the preceding behavior decreases
previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced and its rate of occurrence decreases
stimulus control
a relationship between behavior and an antecedent stimulus, rather than behavior and its consequences
antecedent stimulus
event occurring before the behavior is performed
demonstration of the behavior
uses reinforcement of successive approximations to a desired behavior to teach new behavior
behaviorist emphasis on which environmental factors increase, decrease, or maintain
Usefulness of Behavioral Theory
Fair - Inclusiveness
Good - verifiable, predictive, parsimony
positivism (Bacon)
emphasized that the only valid knowledge was that which was objectively observable
(Darwin) emphasized
continuity between animal and human behavior - learn about humans thru observation of animals
Pavlovian, classicial, or respondent conditioning
pairs stimuli so that unconditioned stimulus elicits a response

basis of behavioral change called behavior therapy
behavior therapists concentrate on
breaking up maladaptive, conditioned reflexes and buliding more adaptive responses
Law of Effect (Thorndike)
any act which in a given situation produces satisfaction becomes associated with that situation, so that when the situations recurs the act is more likely than before to recur also
-- principle of positive reinforcement
Law of Exercise (Thorndike)
a response made ina particular situation becomes associated with the situation
- related to stimulus control principle
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
model for explaining, predicting and changing human behavior - voluntary behaviors and their consequences
behavior modification
operant conditioning techniques applied to human beings
applied behavior analysis (defined)
process of applying sometimes tentative principles of behavior to the improvement of specific behaviors, and simultaneously evaluating whether or not any changes noted are indeed attributed to the process of application
Baer said
ABA must change socially important behavior
ABA in the classroom
document progress
manage behavior positively
teach students to make good choices
make difference in students' lives
behavioral objective
behavior that should result from the instruction or intervention that is planned
reason for behavioral objectives
-written statement of change in target behavior
-inform students of what is expected
-facilitates effective programming by the teacher
-basis for selecting appropriate materials and instructional strategies
pinpointing behavior
specific, observable, measurable behavior described clearly
educational goals
framework for the academic year - what proportion of the student's educational potential to be developed during the next academic year
goals established using information from:
school psych
adaptive behavior
therapeutic services
physical health
goals should be written in a number of domains of learning:
maladaptive behavior
goals are converted into
statements of instructional intent
components of a behavioral objective
-identify the learner
-identify the target behavior
-identify conditions under whicht the behavior is to be displayed
-identify criterial for acceptable performance
operational definition
agreed-on description of observable and measurable characteristics of the motor performance of the behavior
basic criterion statement or acquisition
indicates the accuracy of a response or the response frequency of occurrence
the appropriateness of the rate at which the student is accurately performing the new response
the ability to perform a response over time without reteaching
can perform and adapt the behavior under conditions different from those in place during acquisition
- generalized across 4 basic dimensions
Bloom's hierarchy
analysis-- > functional use of beh
individual transition plan (ITP) - part of the IEP that links long-term planning with annual school year planning
behavioral intervention plan
-links the management of behaviors that impede instuction with positive intervention strategies to reduce the occurrence of inappropriate behaviors and increase appropriate behavior
BIP includes
operational definition
results of FBA
prevention strategies to be used
behavioral objective
2 circumstances requiring BIP preparation:
-pattern of behavior impedes learning of the student
-behavior subjects student to disciplinary action
the number of times a students engages in a behavior
behavior expressed in a ratio of frequency with time -- ex; 2 times per minute
measurement of how long the student engages in the behavior
length of time between instruction to perform behavior and the occurrence of the behavior
the "shape" of the behavior -- what it looks like
intensity of the behavior
where the behavior occurs
anecdotal reports
complete description of the student's behavior in a particular setting or during an instructional period
anecdotal report includes
setting info
everything target student does and says
who the student says or does it to
everything said to the student
differentiate opinion from fact
provide time line of duration
permanent product recording
tangible items or environmental effects that result from a behavior
permanent product recording should include
duration or latency
observational recording systems
record the behavior as it is occurring
event recording
the number of times a behavior occurs during a specified time period
interval recording or time sampling recording
the length of time the student spends performing some behavior
latency recording
measures how long it takes a student to begin performing a behavior once its performance has been requested
discrete behaviors
have an obvious or agreed upon beginning and end
event recording not good in these instances
-beh occurring at such a high frequency that the number recorded may not reflect an accurate count
-one beh response can occur for extended period of time
controlled presentations
teacher controls the number of opportunities the student will have to perform the behavior
total duration recording
measures how long a student engages in a behavior in a limited time period
accuracy of the recording
Factors affecting data collection
reactivity - presence of observer
observer drift - change in stringency of application of operational definitions
complexity - more complex = less reliability
expectancy - preconceived notions about student beh
dimensions of behavior
horizontal line
shows frequency data collected
ex; days, dates, sessions
vertical line - y axis
identifies target behavior & kind of data being reported
phases of an intervention during which different approaches are used
record of the current level of the behavior
strategy to reduce the behavior
cumulative graph
number of occurrences observed in a session is graphed after being added to the number of occurrences in the previous session
bar graph
uses vertical bars rather than data points to indicate performance levels
function of behavior
to make a desired change in the environment
5 functions of behavior
to gain attention
to gain a tangible reward
to gain sensory stimulation
to escape from task/person/event
to escape from painful stimulation
functional assessment
a set of information gathering strategies used to formulate a hypothesis about the function of an inappropriate beh
functional analysis
strategy of manipulating the student's environment and observing the effect on the beh
behavior support plan
steps in development of BSP
develop operational definition
collect initial confirming data
notify IEP committee members
IDEA requires BSP on 2 occasions
-beh results in a suspension of up to 10 days or a change of placement
-beh impedes learning of the student or of another student
request health, medication, physical, sensory and learing disability info

implement changes based on screening
steps in constructing functional analysis
employ indirect info gathering strategies

employ direct information gathering strategies

formulate hypothesis of function
analog setting
an environment outside the classroom where controlled presentation of the conditions can be managed
Behavior Support Plan steps
-review hypothesis and select components of BSP
-collect and use data to evaluate/revise plan as needed
-maintain and generalize successful results and fade intervention as appropriate
Behavior cusp
An important behavior change for what will come next.
the behavioral cusp dimensions
Access to new Environments
Access to new reinforcers
Access to new Contingencies
Access to generative behaviors
Access to behaviors that compete with archaic behaviors
Access to socially valid behaviors
Opportunity to have an impact on stakeholders

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