Glossary of Apologia General Science Module 1 2

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What is the purpose of science?
To develop general laws that explain the world around us. (1)
**Define science.
A branch of study dedicated to the accumulation and classification of observable facts in order to formulate general laws about the natural world. (1)
Science comes form the Latin word scientia. What does it mean?
To have knowledge. (1)
**Who was Imhotep?
An Egyptian renowed for his knowledge of medicine. (1)
True or False

The heart of Egyptian medicine was trial and error.
True (2)
**What is papyrus?
A primitive form of paper, made from a long-leafed plant of the same name. (2)
Egyptian doctors used moldy bread on wounds to help them heal quickly and cleanly. Why was this effective?
The moldy bread contained penicillin, a chemical that kills germs. (2)
Name the two chemicals contained in Poppy seeds and what they do.
Morphine and codeine which are plain relievers. (2)
What is the invention that advanced medical practices in the ancient nations?
Papyrus, a primitive form of paper made from a long-leafed plant of the same name, allowed knowlege to be passed from generation to generation. (2)
**Ancient Egyptians doctors and inventiors are not considered scientists because...
they collected facts, but did not use them to explain the world around them. (32)
Name the 3 ancient Greeks considered to be the first 'real' scientists.
Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. (4)
studied the heavens and tried to develop an unifying theme to explain the movement of the heavenly bodies. He also predicated solar eclipse. (4)
A student of Thales who tried to explian the orgian of the human race without mentioning a creator, now called evolution.(4)
An associate of Anaximander whose original theory of everything being made of air was wrong. (4)
Called the father of atomic theory bcause he built on the ideas of Anaximenes and discovered atoms. (4)
A student of Leucippus who furthur developed the idea of atoms, but believed they were indestructible. This was later proven wrong. (4)
The more tightly packed atoms of a substance is the more _______ it has.
Density (4)
Who is often called the father of life sciences?
Aristotle (8)
**What is Aristotle's greatest work?
His study of living things.

Aristotle was the first to attempt a large-scale classification of animals and plants. (8)
What is classification?
gathering facts and conclusions in an easy to reference system. (8)
Due to the financial support of _______, Aristotle was able obtain plant and animal system from all over the known world.
Alexander the Great (8)
**Artistole believed that certain living organisms spontaneously formed from non-living substances. What is this idea called?
Spontaneous generation (9)
Why did the idea of spontaneous generation last so long?
Because it came from Aristotle who was considered to a great scientist. (9)
Archimedes was the first scientist to demonstrate ....
how closely mathematics and science are linked. (9)
What is Archimedes best known work? And what did he discover?
His work with fluids. He discovered that when an item is immersed in water, it displaces the same amount of water as the space that the item occupies. (9)
What does "Eureka" mean?
I have found it. (9)
What did Ptolemy study?
The heavens. He was the first to try and make a complete description of the planets and stars. (10)
**The theory that the earth is the center of the univere is called what?
Ptolemaic system. Also referred to as the geoncentric system. (11)
Although the data collected proved the Ptolemaic system was incorrect, who continued to support the idea and why?
The church continued to support the idea because they reasoned that since God created man, the earth must be the most important thing in the universe, so it must be at the very center, and everything else must travel around it. (11)
True or False

The acceptance or rejection of scientific proposition should rest on data and opinion.

It should rest on data only, nothing more. (11)
**Define alchemy.
The belief that lead (or other inexpensive substances) could be transformed into gold (or other precious substances). (13)
Define chemical reaction.
One or more substances interacting to form one or more new substances. (14)
**Where alchemists considered scientists?
No. Although they did record the observations of their experiments, they never drew any conclusions. They learned things by trial and error. (14)
The early middle ages is sometimes called the 'Dark Ages' because ....
little was learned during this time in history. (14)
Roman Catholic monks created large volumes of scientific observations and speculations called what?
Encyclopedias (15)
Scientific progress depends not only on scientist, but it also depends on ____ and ____.
government and culture (14)
What is a supernova? Who discovered it?
A supernova is an explosion of a star. They were first observed by the ancient chinese who recorded their observations but did not understand. (15)
What is a nebula?
a cloud of dust and gas caused when a supernova occurs. (15)
**Name the 3 lessons from history specifically mentioned in the text.
#1 - Scientific ideas should be supported based on evidence, not based on the people who agree with it. (11)

#2 - Scientific progress depends not only on scientist, but government and culture. (14)

#3 - Science progresses by building on the works of previous scientists. (16)
Science slowed considerably at the beginning of the Dark Ages due to the influence of the Roman Empire. Explain why.
The Romans believed in many Gods who roamed the universe doing as they pleased. Since the gods' actions were random, the romans reasoned that the natural world must be random as well. To them this meant that the natural world could not be explained. (16)
**Who is considered to be the first modern scientist?
Robert Grosseteste, a bishop in the Roman Catholic church in the early 1200s who was committed to the idea that the secrets of the natural world could be learned by discovering the laws that God has set in motion. (17)
**What procedure did Grosseteste teach that scientists should follow?
The scientific method.

He taught that a scientist should make observations, then come up with an explaination for why the observed events happened. Next he should test his explaination. (17)
Who was "the priest who solved the mystery of the rainbow"?
Dietrich Von Freiberg, a Roman Catholic priest. (17)
Which scientist predicated that science would one day bring flying machines, explosives, submarines, and worldwide travel?
Roger Bacon, a Roman Catholic theologian who believed the more man learned about science, the more he world learn about God. (17)
On what 2 levels was the work of Thomas Bradwardine important?
#1 - He questioned the teachings of the Roman Catholic church, and is considered the first reformer.

#2 - He was the first scientist to examine many of Aristotle's ideas and found most of them lacking. He proved that Aristotle's theory on motion was wrong. (18)
Did Nicholas of Cusa, a Roman Catholic priest who studied the planets and the stars, agree with Ptolemy's idea that the earth was the center of the universe?
No, he believed that the earth spins while it travels around the sun.
**How did the Christian worldview effect the progress of science near the end of the Dark Ages? Why?
The Christian worldview began to replace the Roman worldview.

Science is based on the notion that the world works according to rational laws that do NOT change. Since Christians believe in a rational Creator whose laws do NOT change, science and Christianity work very well together. (18)
**What were the 2 important works published during The Renaissance period?
#1 - A book by Nicolaus Copernius that laid out his ideas about the earth, sun, and the nearby planets. (19)

#2 - A book by Andreas Vesalius that tried to show all the details of the human body. (20)
**Nicolaus Copernicus believed Ptolemy's view of the univerise was wrong. What did he believe instead?
Nicolaus Copernicus believed that the sun was at the center of everything and assumed that all of the planets (including the earth) traveled around the sun. (19)
What are the 2 names for Nicolaus Copernicus's theory on the universe?
#1 - The heliocentric system, because 'Helio' was the Greek god of the sun. (19)

#2 - Copernican system, in honor of Copernicus. (19)
Did Johannes Kepler complile evidence for or against Copernicus' heliocentric view?
For it. Kepler tracked the orbits of the planets, and was able to describe them mathmatically. He data showed that planets traveled around the sun in an oval pattern called an ellipse. (20)
What is foci?
The 2 points that define an ellispe. The singular is called a focus. (20)
**Who invented the telescope?
No one knows for sure, but Galileo Galilei is given the credit even though he stole the idea from an inventor. (20)
**Galileo collected lots of data that confirmed the heliocentric (Copernicus) system; why did he stop promoting it?
Galileo, a devot Catholic, was put on trial for heresay because his research was going against the geocentric view for the Roman Catholic church. The church demanded that he stop and he did. (23)
Who was Blaise Pascal?
Pascal was a philospher, mathematician, and scientist who demonstrated that the air we breathe exerts pressure on everything. Today we call this atomspheric pressure. (23)
**Who is considered the greatest scientist of all time?
Issac Newton (23)
**Name Issac Newton's 3 biggest accomplishments.
#1 - The 3 laws of motion

#2 - The motion of Fluids

#3 - The universal law of gravitation.

Name the founder of modern chemistry.
Robert Boyle (24)
What did Antoni van Leeuwenhoek invent?
The first microscope. (24)
**During the Enlightment science stopped relying on the authority of past scientists and began relying on experiments and data. What this good or bad?
Both. It was good because scientists focused on the sciencific data, not the person's reputation. It was bad because Christianity was taken out of science. (26)
What book did Carrolus Linnaeus publish?
A book in which he tried to classify all living creatures. (26)
**While studying chemical reactions what did Antonie-Lauent Lavoisier realize?
He realized that matter cannot be created or destroyed - it can only change form. The is known as the Law of Mass Conservation. (26)
What is combustion?
The process of burning. (26)
**Why is John Dalton considered the founder of modern atomic theory?
He proposed a detailed theory about atoms. (26)
What is the Industrial Revolution?
The period in history when inventors created machines that made work faster and more productive. (26)
**What is Charles Darwin best known for?
Darwin is best know for his theory of evolution which was published in his book The Origin of the Species. (27)
**Describe the idea of immuntability of the species.
This is the idea that all living creatures stayed the same throughtout history. It was proven wrong by Darwin. (27)
Louis Pasteur destroyed the idea of spontaneous generation. What else is he known for?
Pasteur studied bacteria and developed a process called pasteurization which keeps milk from souring. (28)
What is geology?
The study of rocks. (29)
Through his study of geology Sir Charles Lyell believed what about the earth?
That it was formed over millions of years, which broke the theory that the earth was young. (29)
**Define genetics.

On whose work is the modern field of genetics based?
Genetics is the study of how traits are passed fro parent to child.

Gregor Mendel. (28)
In what field of science did Michael Faraday work?
Electricity and Magnetism. (28)
**James Clark Maxwell is known as the founder of _______. He proved that electricity and magnestism were both different aspects of the same process called ______.

**James Joule proved that, like matter, energy cannot be created or destroyed. What is this law called?
the First Law of Thermodynamics. (29)
**What is the basic assumption behind quantum mechanics? Who proposed this idea?
The idea that energy exists in small packets called "quanta" which was proposed by Max Planck. (29, 30)
Name the most famous scientist in quantum mechanics.
Albert Einstein. (30)
**Name 2 ideas for which Einstein is famous.
Special theory of relativity and General theory of relativity. (39)
**Niels Bohr developed the Bohr model. What is it?
A picture of an atom. (30)

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