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Glossary of Apologia Biology Module 8 (Second Edition)

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Allele
One of a pair of genes that occupies the same position on homologous chromosomes
Autosomal inheritance
Inheritance of a genetic trait not on a sex chromosome
Autosomes
Chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual
Change in chromosome number
A situation in which abnormal cellular events in meiosis lead to either none of a particular chromosome in the gamete or more than one chromosome in the gamete
Change in chromosome structure
A situation in which the chromosome loses or gains genes during meiosis
Dihybrid cross
A cross between two individuals concentrating on two definable traits
Dominant allele
An allele that will determine phenotype if even one is present in the genotype
Genetic disease carrier
A person who is heterozygous in a recessive genetic disorder
Genotype
Two-letter set that represents the alleles an organism possesses for a certain trait
Heterozygous genotype
A genotype with two different allele
Homozygous genotype
A genotype in which both alleles are identical
Monohybrid cross
A cross between two individuals concentrating on only one definable trait
Mutation
A radical chemical change in one or more alleles
Pedigree
A diagram that follows a particular species' phenotype through several generations
Phenotype
The observable expression of an organism's genes
Recessive allele
An allele that will not determine the phenotype unless the genotype is hornozygous with that allele
Sex chromosomes
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
Sex-linked inheritance
Inheritance of a genetic trait located on the sex
True breeding
f an organism has a certain characteristic that is always passed on to all of its offspring, we say that this organism bred true with respect to that characteristic.

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