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Glossary of Apologia Biology Module 6 Second Edition

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Cell wall
A rigid substance on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
Central vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution which contains a high concentration of solutes
Chromoplasts
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
Cytoplasm
A jelly-like fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell keep it's shape, and aids in movement.
Endoplasmic reticulum
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes which perform several tasks within a cell
Golgi bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Ions
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons
Intermediate Filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.
Leucoplasts
Organelles that store starches or oils
Lysosome
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions which break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
Microfilament
fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoplasm.
Middle lamella
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
Mitochondria
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
Phagocytic vacuole
A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs
Pinocytic vesicle
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
Plasma membrane
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings
Ribosomes
Non-membrane-bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
ER that is dotted with ribosomes
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
ER that has no ribosomes
Secretion vesicle
Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released
Waste vacuoles
Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA and proteins in the nucleus
Nuclear membrane
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Microtubules
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a rope-like structure

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