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Glossary of Apologia Biology Module 1

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Abiogenesis
The theory that, long ago, very simple life forms spontaneously appeared through random chemical reactions.
Asexual reproduction
Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.
Autotrophs (aw' toh trohfs)
Organisms that are able to make their own food
Binomial nomenclature (bye no' mee ul no' mun klay chur)
Naming an organism with its genus and species name
Carnivores (kar nih' vors)
Organisms that eat only organisms other than plants
Consumers
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food
Decomposers
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms
Eukaryotic cell (yoo kehr ee aht' ik sell)
A cell with distinct, membrane-bound organelles
Herbivores (hur bih' vors)
Organisms that eat plants exclusively
Heterotrophs (hef er uh trohfs)
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food
Hypothesis
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question
Inheritance
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring
Metabolism (muh tab' uh liz um)
The process by which a living organism takes energy from its surroundings and uses it to sustain itself, develop, and grow
Microorganisms
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye
Mutation
An abrupt and marked difference between offspring and parent
Omnivores (ahm nih' vors)
Organisms that eat both plants and other organisms
Photosynthesis (foh' toh sin thuh' sis)
The process by which a plant uses the energy of sunlight and certain chemicals to produce its own food. Oxygen is often a by-product of photosynthesis.
Producers
Organisms that produce their own food
Prokaryotic cell (pro kehr ee aht' ik sell)
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bound organelles
Receptors
Special structures or chemicals that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their surroundings
Scientific law
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction that requires two organisms, a male and a female
Species
A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units
Taxonomy (tak sahn' uh mee)
The science of classifying organisms
Theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data

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