Glossary of Apologia Biology: Module 2

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an organism that cause disease
an organism that feeds on dead matter
an organism that feeds on a living host
aerobic organisms
organisms that require oxygen
anerobic organisms
organisms that don't require oxygen
steady state
a state where members of a population die as quickly as they're born
exponential growth
population growth that is unhindered because of abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population
logistical growth
population that is controled by limited resources
small circular section of extra DNA that gives one or more traits to a bacterium & can be reproduced seperatly from main bacterial genetic code
temporary union of two organisms to transfer DNA
transfer of DNA segment from a nofunctional donor(dead) cell to a functional recipient cell
The process where infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another
the DNA & other essential parts of bacterium coated w/ several hard layers
organisms from same species, that have markebly different traits
layer of sticky sugars that surround cell wall of bacterium, & deters infection fighting agents
cell wall
holds contents of bacterium together, & shapes bacterium
plasma membrane
made of phospholipids and proteins, regulates what the bacterium takes in from outside world
fluid inside cell that supports DNA and ribosoms
fibrous bristles used for grasping, either for adhering to surfaces, or sex pili when used for grasping other bacteria for reproduction
looks like a tail, used like a outboard moter to propel bacterium
produce complicated chemicals called proteins
process where bacteria uses chemical reactions to produce energy, then use it & other chemicals to produce food
binary fission
asexual reproduction for bacterium:
1. bacterium creates another DNA loop
2. cell wall elongates, pulling DNA loops apart
3. then bacterium seperate into two identical bacterium
genetic recombination
bacteria exchange genetic information to increase genetic diversity of population
Gram stain
a way of staining samples to make microorganisms show up better, absorbed through cell wall
blue color reaction, restained stain
red color reaction, didn't restain stain
Phylum Gracilicutes
Class Scotobacteria- non-photosynthetic
Class Anoxyphotobacteria- non-oxygen producing photosynthetic
Class Oxyphotobacteria- oxygen producing photosynthetic
Phylum Firmicutes
Class Firmibacteria- bacilli or cocci
Class Thallobacteria- all but bacilli or cocci
Phylum Tenericutes
bacteria lacking cell wall,
Class Mollicutes- only class in phylum
Phylum Mendosicutes
bacteria w/ exotic cell wall,
Class Archaebacteria- only class in phylum
Kinds of Bacterium
Coccus(sperical), Bacillus(rod shaped), Spirillum(spiral shaped)
an organism that cause disease

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