Glossary of Apologia Biology

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Organic Molecule
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous
the process by which living organisms produce molecules
a substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but does not get used up in the process
Chemical change
a change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance
a measurement of how much substance exists within a certain volume
Dehydration Reaction
a chemical reaction in which molecules combine by ejecting water
the random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides
All atoms that contain the same number of protons
Lacking any affinity to water
Hydrogen bond
A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula
Anything that has mass and takes up space
An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together
Simple carbohydrates that contain three to ten carbon atoms
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration
Peptide bond
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein
One of three forms-- solid, liquid, or gas-- which every substance is capable of attaining
Physical change
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
Saturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids which have no double bonds between carbon atoms
Semipermeable membrane
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through
Unsaturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms

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