Glossary of Aphasia Manual chapter 1
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- Anterior Lesions generally produce _____ aphasias.
- Nonfluent Aphasias
- Posterior Lesions generally produce _____ aphasias.
- Fluent Aphasias
- Producing a word involves the following brain structures: (x8)
- 1. Reticular activating system
3. Basal Ganglia
4. Limbic System
5. Regions of the R Hem
5. L Hem regions of supplementary motor area
6. Wernicke's Area
7. Broca's Area
- What do nerve cells comprise of?
- The basic elements - the building blocks of the nervous system. Each consists of a cell body and branching processes called nerve fibers. They are generally organized in clusters.
- What are short nerve fibers that receive electochemical impulses and transport them toward the cell body?
- Which nerve fiber transports impulses AWAY from the cell body?
- Axons (long nerve fiber)
- What is the transfer of electrochemical impulses, or information, from one neuron to another called? Where do they take place?
- Neural Transmissions. They take place at a synapse or junction between two neurons.
- The afferent fiber carries a neural impulse _________ the cell body, whereas the efferent fiber carries the impulse _______ the cell body.
- toward, away from
- A cluster of nerve cell bodies located WITHIN the brain or spinal cord is called a ______.
- A cluster of nerve cell bodies located OUTSIDE the brain and spinal cord is called a _______.
- What is Gray matter?
- -Refers to the regions of the brain or spinal cord containing clusters of nerve cell bodies.
-Mainly responsible for information processing.
-Composed of dendrites, neural cell bodies and shorter axons.
-The cerebral cortex consists of layers of nerve cells, appears gray in color and is included with cerebral nuclei as the gray matter of the brain.
- What are cream-colored nerve fibers responsible for information transmission called?
- White Matter.
-composed of axons
-connects gray matter clusters by means of nerve fiber pathways
- What does the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consist of?
- -Cranial Nerves and Spinal Nerves
-Nerves may be motor or sensory
- Which fibers (sensory/motor) receive stimuli (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold) from peripheral receptor organs and transmit information centrally toward the cerebral hemispheres?
- What does the Central Nervous System (CNS) include?
- -The brain (gray and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brain stem and cerebellum)
- The Spinal cord.
- What structure consists primarily of the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and amygdala and is associated with learning and motor functions?
- Basal Ganglia
(the Extrapyramidal system also includes the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus)
- What structure is responsible for sensory transmission and sensory integration along with memory and focusing attention?
-Main part of the diencephalon
-Thalamic lesions = fluctuation attention and problems with verbal memory
- What does the Pyramidal System do?
- activates muscles and influences their power or strength
- What does the Extrapyramidal System do?
- -Controls the smoothness or finesse of movements
-Execution of voluntary motor activity is regulated, modulated, modifies, sped up or slowed down and increased or decreased in amplitude by the extrapyramidal system.
- What structure is responsible for integrating or coordinating muscle groups throughout the body?
- The cerebellum
-Sits like a roof over the brain stem and is composed of a surface layer of gray matter and an inner core of white matter and cerebellar nuclei.
- What structure, made up of a thick band of white matter, sits at the base of the median longitudinal fissure and links corresponding regions of the two hemispheres?
- Corpus Callosum
- What will damage to the corpus callosum do?
- Interrupt the transfer of info from one hem to another and may result in the appearance of abnormalities of cognitive function.
- What do Cortico-Cortical Association fibers do?
- Connects different regions of the cortex to each other.
- The outermost surface of the brain is covered by gray matter called ___?____.
- The Cerebral cortex
- The ridges of the outside of the brain are called ____ and he grooves are called ____.
- Gyri, Sulci
- The four major lobes and their functions are:
- Frontal Lobe: Voluntary control of mvmt throughout the body, synthesizing sensory stimuli, abstract thinking, problem-solving and judgement
Temporal Lobe: Hearing, or analysis of aud. signals to the point of comprehension
Parietal Lobe: Perception and elaboration of somosthetic sensations (body awareness sensations - touch, pressure, and spatial)
Occipital Lobe: Vision
- What system mediates emotions?
-Desire to produce language
-Emotional Coloring of thought
- Limbic System
- What is the region in the left hemisphere responsible for language?
- The Zone of Language
-Located within the distribution of the MCA, surrounding the Sylvian Fissure on the lateral surface of the hem.
-Anteriorly, includes Broca's
-Posteriorly, includes Wernicke's
We should consider the Zone of Language as the "center" for language (i.e., a region where language is located).
- FALSE. ZoL should be regarded as a critical component (a major intersection) of several overlapping neural netwoks, widely distributed throughout the brain, whose total combined activity has the effect of producing languages as we know it.
- What is Aphasia?
- Aphasia is an acquired disorder of language processing secondary to brain disease or injury. It excludes developmental or congenital language problems, motor speech, or artic disorders and impaired thought processes.
- How big is the brain?
- -Size of a grapefruit
-Weighs 1250 grams
- What is known as the Sensorimotor Relay Center?
- The thalamus
- Which cranial nerves activate mscles derived from somites, including skeletal, extraocular and glossal muscles?
- General Efferent (motor)
->Special efferent projects to muscles of face, palate, mouth, pharynx, larynx, NOT eye and tongue.
- Which cranial nerves project to muscles of visceral organs (pupillary constriction, gland secretion, and regulation of heart and tracheal muscles)?
- General Visceral Efferent
- Which cranial nerves mediate sensory innervations from somatic muscles, skin, ligaments and joints?
- General Afferent
->Special Afferent mediates special sensations of vision from retina, auditory, and equilibrium from inner ear
- Which cranial nerves mediate sensory innervation from organs, including larynx, pharynx, and abdomen?
- General Visceral Afferent
->->Special visceral afferent mediates visceral sensations of taste from tongue, olfaction from nose
- What is responsible for integrating or coordinating muscle groups throughout the body?
- What are the two fissures that divide the brain into 4 sections. Where are they located?
- Sylvian (lateral): Temporal Lobe lies beside and below; Parietal lobe sits behind and above
Rolando (Central Sulcus): Downward and forward from top of brain just past midpoint almost to sylvian. Front= Frontal Lobe;
- Sensorimotor Strip
- -Work together to control willed mvmts on the body opposite the hemisphere
-Sends msgs via Pyramidal System
- Which subdivision of the frontal lobe is linked with executive functioning, motor programming, hypothesis generation, set shifting as well as short-term memory?
- Dorsolateral (top front of head)
-Damage may result in exec. dysfxn and memory probs
- Which subdivision of the frontal lobe is associated with social behavior and personality?
- Orbitofrontal (forehead)
-Damage may result in:
- Which subdivision of the frontal lobe is associated with arousal and motivation?
- Medial frontal (above thalamus)
-Inside the brain
-Damage may result in a picture of apathy
- The temporal lobe connects ____ to ____.
- Wernicke's to Broca's
- What can damage in the occipital lobe do?
- -Cause CHH (contralateral Homonomous Hemi
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