Glossary of Aphasia Manual chapter 1

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Anterior Lesions generally produce _____ aphasias.
Nonfluent Aphasias
Posterior Lesions generally produce _____ aphasias.
Fluent Aphasias
Producing a word involves the following brain structures: (x8)
1. Reticular activating system
2. Cerebellum
3. Basal Ganglia
4. Limbic System
5. Regions of the R Hem
5. L Hem regions of supplementary motor area
6. Wernicke's Area
7. Broca's Area
What do nerve cells comprise of?
The basic elements - the building blocks of the nervous system. Each consists of a cell body and branching processes called nerve fibers. They are generally organized in clusters.
What are short nerve fibers that receive electochemical impulses and transport them toward the cell body?
Which nerve fiber transports impulses AWAY from the cell body?
Axons (long nerve fiber)
What is the transfer of electrochemical impulses, or information, from one neuron to another called? Where do they take place?
Neural Transmissions. They take place at a synapse or junction between two neurons.
The afferent fiber carries a neural impulse _________ the cell body, whereas the efferent fiber carries the impulse _______ the cell body.
toward, away from
A cluster of nerve cell bodies located WITHIN the brain or spinal cord is called a ______.
A cluster of nerve cell bodies located OUTSIDE the brain and spinal cord is called a _______.
What is Gray matter?
-Refers to the regions of the brain or spinal cord containing clusters of nerve cell bodies.
-Mainly responsible for information processing.
-Composed of dendrites, neural cell bodies and shorter axons.
-The cerebral cortex consists of layers of nerve cells, appears gray in color and is included with cerebral nuclei as the gray matter of the brain.
What are cream-colored nerve fibers responsible for information transmission called?
White Matter.
-composed of axons
-connects gray matter clusters by means of nerve fiber pathways
What does the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consist of?
-Cranial Nerves and Spinal Nerves
-Nerves may be motor or sensory
Which fibers (sensory/motor) receive stimuli (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold) from peripheral receptor organs and transmit information centrally toward the cerebral hemispheres?
What does the Central Nervous System (CNS) include?
-The brain (gray and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brain stem and cerebellum)
- The Spinal cord.
What structure consists primarily of the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and amygdala and is associated with learning and motor functions?
Basal Ganglia
(the Extrapyramidal system also includes the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus)
What structure is responsible for sensory transmission and sensory integration along with memory and focusing attention?
-Main part of the diencephalon
-Thalamic lesions = fluctuation attention and problems with verbal memory
What does the Pyramidal System do?
activates muscles and influences their power or strength
What does the Extrapyramidal System do?
-Controls the smoothness or finesse of movements
-Execution of voluntary motor activity is regulated, modulated, modifies, sped up or slowed down and increased or decreased in amplitude by the extrapyramidal system.
What structure is responsible for integrating or coordinating muscle groups throughout the body?
The cerebellum
-Sits like a roof over the brain stem and is composed of a surface layer of gray matter and an inner core of white matter and cerebellar nuclei.
What structure, made up of a thick band of white matter, sits at the base of the median longitudinal fissure and links corresponding regions of the two hemispheres?
Corpus Callosum
What will damage to the corpus callosum do?
Interrupt the transfer of info from one hem to another and may result in the appearance of abnormalities of cognitive function.
What do Cortico-Cortical Association fibers do?
Connects different regions of the cortex to each other.
The outermost surface of the brain is covered by gray matter called ___?____.
The Cerebral cortex
The ridges of the outside of the brain are called ____ and he grooves are called ____.
Gyri, Sulci
The four major lobes and their functions are:
Frontal Lobe: Voluntary control of mvmt throughout the body, synthesizing sensory stimuli, abstract thinking, problem-solving and judgement
Temporal Lobe: Hearing, or analysis of aud. signals to the point of comprehension
Parietal Lobe: Perception and elaboration of somosthetic sensations (body awareness sensations - touch, pressure, and spatial)
Occipital Lobe: Vision
What system mediates emotions?
-Desire to produce language
-Emotional Coloring of thought
Limbic System
What is the region in the left hemisphere responsible for language?
The Zone of Language
-Located within the distribution of the MCA, surrounding the Sylvian Fissure on the lateral surface of the hem.
-Anteriorly, includes Broca's
-Posteriorly, includes Wernicke's
We should consider the Zone of Language as the "center" for language (i.e., a region where language is located).
FALSE. ZoL should be regarded as a critical component (a major intersection) of several overlapping neural netwoks, widely distributed throughout the brain, whose total combined activity has the effect of producing languages as we know it.
What is Aphasia?
Aphasia is an acquired disorder of language processing secondary to brain disease or injury. It excludes developmental or congenital language problems, motor speech, or artic disorders and impaired thought processes.
How big is the brain?
-Size of a grapefruit
-Weighs 1250 grams
What is known as the Sensorimotor Relay Center?
The thalamus
Which cranial nerves activate mscles derived from somites, including skeletal, extraocular and glossal muscles?
General Efferent (motor)

->Special efferent projects to muscles of face, palate, mouth, pharynx, larynx, NOT eye and tongue.
Which cranial nerves project to muscles of visceral organs (pupillary constriction, gland secretion, and regulation of heart and tracheal muscles)?
General Visceral Efferent
Which cranial nerves mediate sensory innervations from somatic muscles, skin, ligaments and joints?
General Afferent

->Special Afferent mediates special sensations of vision from retina, auditory, and equilibrium from inner ear
Which cranial nerves mediate sensory innervation from organs, including larynx, pharynx, and abdomen?
General Visceral Afferent

->->Special visceral afferent mediates visceral sensations of taste from tongue, olfaction from nose
What is responsible for integrating or coordinating muscle groups throughout the body?
What are the two fissures that divide the brain into 4 sections. Where are they located?
Sylvian (lateral): Temporal Lobe lies beside and below; Parietal lobe sits behind and above

Rolando (Central Sulcus): Downward and forward from top of brain just past midpoint almost to sylvian. Front= Frontal Lobe;
Sensorimotor Strip
-Work together to control willed mvmts on the body opposite the hemisphere
-Sends msgs via Pyramidal System
Which subdivision of the frontal lobe is linked with executive functioning, motor programming, hypothesis generation, set shifting as well as short-term memory?
Dorsolateral (top front of head)
-TBI patients
-Damage may result in exec. dysfxn and memory probs
Which subdivision of the frontal lobe is associated with social behavior and personality?
Orbitofrontal (forehead)
-Windshield entry
-Damage may result in:
Which subdivision of the frontal lobe is associated with arousal and motivation?
Medial frontal (above thalamus)
-Inside the brain
-Damage may result in a picture of apathy
The temporal lobe connects ____ to ____.
Wernicke's to Broca's
What can damage in the occipital lobe do?
-Cause CHH (contralateral Homonomous Hemi

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