Glossary of Ap human geography review ch 1~a

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human-induced changes on the natural environment
Theory and practice of making visual representations of the earth's surface in the form of maps
Cultural ecology
The study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they live in
Cultural landscape
the human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society
Earth system science
Systematic approach to physical geography thats looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and the processes on a global scale
Environmental geography
The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa
The head librarian at Alexandria during the 3rd century B.C. he was one of the first cartogrophers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earths circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography"
Fertile Crescent
Name given to the crescent shaped area of the fertile land stratching from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present-day Iraq where the agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C.
Geographical Information Systems
(GIS) A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic date
Global Positioning System
(GPS) A set of satelites used to help determin location anywhere ont the earth's surface with a portable electronic device
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place
George Perkins Marsh
Inventor, diplomat, polotician, and scholar, his classic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, proved the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions
Natural landscape
The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally
W. D. Pattison
He claimed that geography drew from 4 distinct traditions: the earth-science, the culture-environment, the locational, and the area-analysis traditions
Physical geography
The realm of geography thats studies the structures, processes, distributions, and change through time of the natural phenomena of the earth's surface
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of the Guide to Georgraphy, which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude
Qualitative Data
Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives
Quantitative Data
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association
Quantitative revolution
A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathmatical models and statistical techniques
A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the atributes of places elsewhere)
Regional Geography
The study of geographical regions
Remote sensing
Observation and mathmatical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images
Carl Saucer
Geographer from UC @ Berkley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from the interaction between humans and the physical environment. Saucer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activity
Sense of place
Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place
Spatial perspective
An intellectual framework thas looks at the particular locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is where it is, and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places
The concept of using the earth's resources is such a way that they provide for people's needs in the preset without diminishing the earth's ability to provide for future generations
Systematic geography
The study of the earth's integrated systems as a whole, instead if focusing in a particular phenomena in a single place
Thematic Layers
Individual maps of specific feature that are overlaid on one another in a GIS to understand and analyze a spatial relationship
Absolute Distance
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer
Coordinate System
A standard grid, composed of lines latitude and longitude, used to determin the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface
Distance decay effect
The decrease in the interaction between 2 phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases.
Dot maps
Thematic maps thats use points to show the precise locations od specific observations or occurances, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
Expansion diffusion
The spread of ideas, innovations, fashions, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact with exchange
Friction of distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction beween two places
Fuller projection
A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of land masses but completely rearanges direction (n, s, e, and w)
The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is slightly larger around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north to south
Gravity model
A mathmatical formula that describes the level of interaction between 2 places based on the size of their populationand their distance from one another
Anything in the landscape, real or percieved, that is potentially threatening (usually avoided in spatial behavior)
Hierarchical diffusion
A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between two places because of something they have in common
International Date Line
The line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
Intervening opportunities
The idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the two suppliers to the buyer, will represent and intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the 3rd from being able to share its supply of goods and services. They are frequently utilized because transportation costs decrease with proximity
Map line that connects point of equal or similar values.
A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. They have a higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
The angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of lattitude, or parrelles.
Law of retail gravitation
Law that states thats people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
Location charts
Pn a map, a chart, or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or juridsdiction.
The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitutde, or meridians.
Map projection
A mathmatical method that involves transfering the earth's sphere onto a flat surface.
Mercator projection
A true conformal cylindrical map projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction.
A line of langitude that runs north-south. All lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles.
An east-west lines of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator.
Preference map
A map that displays individual preference for certain places
Prime meridian
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in
Greenwich, England, which marks the 0 degree line of longitude
Proportional symbol map
A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol indicates the relatie magnatude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
Reference map
A map type that shows information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating
Relative distance
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places
Relative location
The position of a place relative to places around it
Relocation diffusion
The diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration
A map's smallest discernable unit.
Robinson projection
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors
An east-west line of latitude thats runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the sctual size of that same area on the earth's surface
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics
The relative or a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area connections and interdependencies within that system
Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small
Spatial diffusion
Refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel to outer space
Thematic map
A type of map that displays one or more variables such as population or income level within a specific
Time-space convergence
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places
Topographic space
The amount of connectivity between places, reguardless of the absolute distance separating them
The cost involved in moving goods from one place to another
Use of sophisticated software to create dyamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive
Age-sex distribution
A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population (population pyramid)
Action space
The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis.
Beaux arts
The movement within city planning and urban design that stressed marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones.
Central Business District
The downtown nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quie high; and transportation systems converge
Central Place Theory
A theory formulates by Walter Christaller that explains the size distribution of cities in terms of a competative supply of goods and servics to dispersed populations.
City Beautiful movement
Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts schools. Archetects from the movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the new industrial world.
Edge city
Cities located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a decentralized suburban environment
Colonial City
Cities established by colonial empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completly taking their infractures
European cities
Cities in Europe that mere mostly developed during the Medieval Period and retain some of the characteristics such as extreme density of developement with narrow buildings and winding streets, a main church in the center and high walls surrounding it.
Person who has left the inner-city and moved to the outlying suburbs or rual areas.
Fuedal city
Cities during the Middle Ages represent relative stagnation in urban growth.
Gateway city
Cities because of their location act as ports and distribution centers for largr geographic areas.
The trend of middle and upper income American moving into city centers and rehabilitating most of the archetecture, also replacing low-income populations by changing the social character of neighborhoods.
A process occirring in many inner cities inwhich they become disabilitated centers of poverty.
The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves.
Industrial Revolution
Period of rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture that occured in England during the late 18th century and rapidly difused around the world.
Inner city decay
Those parts of large urban areas that lose a significant portion of the populations as a result of change in industry or migration to the suburbs. As a result it loses tax base and becomes a center of poverty
Islamic cities
Cities in Muslim contries stucture is based on religious beliefs. Islamic mosques at the center and walls surrounding the city. Open-air markets and courtyards surrounded by high walls, dead end streets which limits trafic in residential areas.
Latin American cities
Owe much of their structure to colonialism, rapid industrialization and population growth.Rings of distinctive residential and industrial areas.
Medieval cities
Extreme density of narrow buildings and winding streets, and church in the center and walls surrounding the city.
In the developing world where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since WWII. Chaotic unplanned growth, polution, and poverty is common.
Metropolitian area
Within the US an urban area consisting of one or more county units, usually containing several urban areas or suburbs, that together act as an economic whole.
Modern archetecture
Point of view, cities and buildings are thought and act like well oiled machines, with little energy spent on designs, made of concrete and glass.
Geographical ceners of activity. Larger cities have numerous nodes.
Postmodern Archetecture
A reaction to the feel of modern archetecture, used older historical styles.
Primate city
A countries leading city with a population disproportionately greater than other urban areas in the same country.
Rank-size rule
Rules that states that population of any given town should be inversely proportional to its rank in the countries hierarchy when the distribution of cities according to their sizes follow a specific pattern.
Results from suburbanization, affluent members leave the city center to homogenous neighborhoods. Leaving those who cannot afford to relocate remain in pocets in the center of the city.
Urban growth boundry
geographical boundries placed around a city to limit suburban growth wihin that city.
Urban revitalization
Occurs when inner city goes through decay which usually causes the construction of new shopping ceners, entertainment venues, etc.
Gouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use infastructure and sharing of labor resourses.
Ancillary activities
Economic activities that surround and support large scale industries such as shiping and food services.
Human-centered; in sustainable developement, anthropentric refers to ideas that focus soley on the needs of people without considering the creatures with whom we share the planet or the ecosystems upon which we depend.
Backwash effect
The negative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region.
Brick-and-mortar business
Traditional businesses with actual stores in which trade or retail occurs; it does not exist soley on the Internet.
Conglomerate corporation
A firm that is comprised of many smaller firms that serve several different functions.
National or global regions where economic power, terms of wealth, innovation, and advanced technology, is concentrated.
Core-periphery model
Model of spatial structure of developement in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developemed core region.
The dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomertion.
Loss of industrial activty in a region.
The process of economic growth expansion, or realization of regional resourse potential.
Web-based economic activities
Economic backwaters
Regions that fail to gain from economic developement.
Export-processing zone
Areas where governments create favorable investment and tading conditions to attract export-oriented industries.
Fast world
Areas or the world, usually the economic core, that experience greater levels of connection due to high-speed telecommunications and transportaion technologies.
Footlose firms
Manyfacturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining the location of the firm.
System of standardized mass production, attributed to Henry Ford.
Foriegn invesment
Overseas business investments made by private companies.
Gender equity
A measure of the oppertunities given to women compared to men within a given country.
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that smaller scales of polotical and economical life are becomming obsolete.
Gross Domestic Product
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period.
Gross National Product
The total value of goods and services, including income recieved from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period.
Human Development Index
Measure used by the United Nations that calculates developement in terms of human welfare not money aor productivity. The HDI evaluates human welfare based on three parameters: life expectancy, education, and income.
Industrialized countries
Britian, France, the US, Russia, Germany, and Japan, that were all at the forefront of industrial production and innovation during the 20th century.
Least-cost theory
A concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transportation and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration.
Least-developed country
Africa, parts of South America and Asia, that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of livin.
Manufacturing region
A region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together In the US areas around the Great Lakes, southeastern Brazil, central England, and Tokyo.
US have firms out of the country usually along the US/Mexican border. They cheaply asemble goods to export back to the US.
Net National Product
A measure of all goods and services produced by a country in one yr., including production from its investments abroad, minus the loss of degradtion of natural resourse capitol as a result of productivity.
Offshore financial center
Areas that have been specially designed to promote business transactions, and have become centers for banking and finance.
Countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. Africa and parts of South America, and Asia.
Primary Economic Activities
Economic activities in which natural resources are made available for use or further processing, mining, agriculture, forestry, and fishing.
A measure of goods and services produced within a country.
Purchasing Power Parity
A monetary measure of development that takes into account ehat money buys in different countries.
Quaternary economic activities
Economic activities concerned with research, information gathering, and administration.
Quinary economic activities
The most advanced form of quaternary, consists of high level decision making for large corporations, or high level scientific research.
The process inwhich specific regions aquire characteristics that differentiate them form others in the same country.
Rostow's stages of development
A model of economic development that describes a countries progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least developed countries to most developed countires.
Rust belt
The manufacturing region in the US that is currently debilitated because manufacturing firms have relocated to other countries offering cheap labor and relaxed environmental regulations.
Secondary economic activities
Concerned with processing raw materials such as manufacturing, construction, and power generation.
Those newly industrialized countires with medium standards of living such as Chilie, Brazil, India, China, and Indonesia. Offer thier citizens relatively diverse economic oppertunities but also have extreme gaps between the rich and the poor.
Service-based economics
Jighly developed economies that focus on research and development, marketing, tourism, sales, and telecommunications.
Spatially fixed cost
An imput cost in manufacturing tat remains constant wherever production is located.
Spatially variable cost
An input cost in manufacturing thats changes significantly from place to place in its total amount and in its relative share of total costs.
Speciality goods
Good that are not massproduced but are assembled individually in smaller quantities.
Sustainable development
The idea that people living today should be able ti meet their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same.
Tertiary economic activities
Provide a market exchange for goods and that bring together consumers and providers of service such as retail, transportation, government, personal, and professional services.
Transnational corporation
A firm that includes business atleast two seperate countries; also known as multinational corporations.
World Cities
A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce.
World-systems theory
Developed by Immanuel Walkerstein it explains the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi-periphery in terms of economic and political connections.
Antecedent boundries
A boundry line established before and area is populated.
Centrifugal force
Tend to divide a country.
Centripetal forces
Tend to unite or bind a contry.
Commonwealth of Independent States
Confederacy of independent states formarly the Solviet Union that have united because of their economic and administrarive needs.
Compact state
A state circular, oval, or rectangular, inwhich distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
A form kf an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose.
Domino theory
States political destabilization in one country can lead to political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of colloapse.
East/wear divide
Geographic seperation between the largley democratic and the free-market countries of Western Europe and the Americas, from the communist and socialist countries in Eastern Europe and Asia.
Electorial College
A certain # of electors from each state proportional to a seemingly representative of that states population
Electorial vote
The decision of a particular state elector that represents the dominent views of the elector's state.
Elongated state
A state whose territory is a long elongated shape.
European Union
International organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members.
A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.
A system of government in which the power is distributed amoung certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government.
Fragmented state
A state that is not a whoe but separate parts
Geometric boundry
Political boundires that are defined and delimited to straight lines.
The study of the interplay between political regions and the territorial context in which they occur
The designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular party or candidate
Heartland theory
Halford Mackiner stated that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could eventually gain enough stregnth to take over the world.
The perpetuation of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign.
International organization
An alliance of two or more countries seeking coroperation with easchother without giving up either's autonomy or selfdetermination.
Landlocked state
A state that is completly surrounded by the land of other states, with is a disadvantage for trading.
Law of the sea
Law establishes states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas oceans and other resourses
Hitler's expansionist theory based n a drive to aquire "living space" for the german people
A state territory that is small in both population and area.
Tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural atributes.
A sence of national pride to such an extent of exalting one nation above all others
A country whose population posseses a substantial degree of homegeneity and unity.
North American Free Trade Agreement
Signed in 1994, allows the opening of borders between the US, Canada, and Mexico
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
An international organization that has joined together for military purposes
North/south divide
The economic division between wealthy countries of Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia an the generally poorer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Organic theory
The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles (youth, maturity, and old age)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
An international economic organization whose member countries all produce and export oil
Perforated state
A states whose territory completely surrounds another state
Physical boundry
Correspond with promient physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers
Political geography
The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is reconized by the international community.
Popular vote
The tally of each individual's vote within a given geographic area
Prorupted state
A state that exhibits a narrow elongated land extension leading away from the main territory.
The process of rellocationof electoral seats to defined territories
The drawing of new electoral district boundry lines in response to population changes
Rimland theory
Nickolas Spykman's theory that the domination of costal fringes of Eurasia would provide a base ofr world conquest
The right of a nation to govern itself autonomously.
States' rights
Rights and powers believed to be in authority of the state rather than the fereral government
Subsequent boundries
Established after and area has been settled considers social and cultural diferences in the area
Superimposed boundries
Drawn ignoring existing cultural patterns
Supranational organization
Organization of three or more states to poromote shared objectives
A state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of religious leaders.
United Nations
A global supranational organization established at the end on WWII to foster international security and cooperation.
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers
Any item that represents a material aspect of a culture
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people-such as nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization
Caste system
System in India that goves everyone a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. They may raise in their next life with good deeds.
The world's most widespread religion. A monotheistic universalizing religion that uses missionaries to diffuse. 3 major categories: Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox
A pidgin lanuage that envolves to the point that it becomes a primary language of the people who speak it
Cultural complex
The group traits that define a particular culture.
Cultural extinction
Oliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of the three.
Cultural geography
The subfield of human geography that looks at how culture varies over space
Cultural hearth
Locations where specific cultures first arose
Cultural imperialism
The dominance of one culture over another
Cultural trait
The specific customs that are apart of everyday life of a particular culture (language, religion, etc.)
A total way of life held in common by a group of people (language, ideology, etc.)
Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group
A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems
Geographically distinct versions of a single language
People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside the home of their ethnicity
The portion of the earth inhabited by humans
Ethnic cleansing
The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethnicity from a country or region either by forced migration or genocide.
Ethnic neighborhood
An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
Ethnic religion
Religion that is identified with a particular thnic or tribal group that doesn't seek new converts
Refers to a group of people who share common identitiy
Evangelical religions
Religion in which an effort is made to spread the belief
Folk culture
Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional societies they were developed
The strict adherence to a particular doctrine
A premeditated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group
A segregated ethnic area within a city
Global religion
Religion thats members are numerous and widespread and their docterines might appeal to different people from any religion on the globe
A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India, that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system
Indo-European family
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the worlds people
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that their is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was his prophet.
The first major monotheistic religion. Based on a sence of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live
Language extinction
This occurs when a language is no longer used by any living people.
Language family
A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago
Language group
A set of languages with relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
Lingua franca
An extremley simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usually used for a quick and efficient communication
A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the majority race or ethnicity in a particular area or region
Official language
Language in which all government and business occurs in a country

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