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Glossary of Ap Government Chapters 1-3

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Federalism involves 2 levels of government, both of which are
Sovereign
What allows national governments the right to alter or even abolish local government?
a unitary system
Which of the following systems of government would be most likely to appeal to those in the United States who wish to implement liberal policies in the nation but who encounter resistance from conservative state legislators?
unitary
An interest group with a strong following in only one region of the country would have the best chance to achieve its goals under what type of system?
Federal
Under a unitary system of government, would senators from a particular region of the country blocking the passage of major civil rights legislation be unlikely?
yes
What is one important feature of a federal system such as that in the united states?
different political groups perusing different political purposes will come to power in different places.
The Founders did not include in the Us Constitution an explicit statement of state powers but later added it to what?
The 10th amendment
What was Madison's view on Federalism?
He was an ardent supporter of national supremacy, then state's rights
Today's federalist system in the US, in which the power of the central government is stronger than ever before, would be most likely to please who?
Alexander Hamilton
In McCulloch v. Maryland, if the Supreme Court reached the opposite conclusion on the right to Congress to charter a bank, the bank would have been what?
declared illegal
An important outcome of Marshall's ruling in McCulloch v. Maryland was to...
Confirm the supremacy of the federal government in the exercise of the constitutional powers granted to congress
States cannot declare the acts of congress unconstitutional. In other words states do not have the right of...
recall
One can argue that the concept of dual federalism was doomed from the beginning because...
two rulers cannot rule one people
Most forms of economic activity are now included under...
interstate commerece
According to the text, the grant-in-aid system grew rapidly because it helped state and local officials resolve what dilemma?
how to get federal money into state hands without violating states' rights
During the 1960s the nature of federal grants began to change why?
the federal government began devising grant programs.
While gleefully accepting federal grants with no apparent strings, state governors were disregarding which fundamental axiom of politics?
theres no such thing as a free lunch
A major shift in the focus was federal grant-in-aid programs took place in the 1960s. this shift was toward what?
meeting national needs such as reducing pollution
Local police chiefs would be an example of what?
an intergovernmental lobby
A federal grant designed for a specific purpose defined by federal law is called
a categorical grant
the first important function that the new republican-controlled congress sought to shift back to the states in 1994 was
welfare
a result of the Reagan-era block grants and budget cuts was...
higher service levels than otherwise would have been the case.
what mandate was enacted in 1990?
Americans with Disabilities act
when a locality is required by federal law to do something, regardless of whether is receives federal funding for that purpose, this duty is called a...
mandate
one reason why revenue sharing has proved unsuccessful as a means of distributing federal money to local governments is because it
lacks strong local political support
according to the text both revenue sharing and block grants have enjoyed only marginal success, in part becasue
the federal government steadily increased the number of strings attached to such grants.
if the recent growth rates of categorical and block grants were reversed, we could predict that in the next decade state governments would...
have more money to throw around
individuals have power when they are able to do what?
get others to do what they want
If you decided that you wanted to achieve some formal authority in the us society you would be best advises to
pursue elective or appointive office
The primary source oflegitimate political authority in the united states is the
us constitution
A New England town meeting is the best example of what kind of democracy?
pratiipatory
They key to success of a representative democracy is...
genuine competition for leadership
Critics of representative democracy have pointed out what flaw?
it foes not adequately protect basic liberties
That extragovernmental eltes do not control politics could be agreed on by both...
max weber and the pluralists
the pluralist view of political reality emphasizes the _______ of political resources.
decentralization
those who believe that government is little more than a front for major corporate interests would most likely be attracted tp the thinking of...
Karl Marx
Max Weber argued that Karl Marx had neglected the most important institution in modern times namely the...
bureaucracy
C. Wright Mills suggested the most important institution policies are set by whom?
corporate leaders, handful of key political leaders, and top military officials
Marx's view of government would dispose one to view an administration's proposal of large military budget as a(n)
search for naitional security
Those who possess a disproportionate share of political power are defined as what?
a political elite
A city council representative faces an important vote on how much, if any, money to spend on a new school. The representative relies on a poll of her constituents to make a decision. This is keeping with the form of politics known as what?
majoritarian politics
According to Tocqueville, Americans are fond of explaining their actions in terms of
self interest
The text cites the AFL-CIO's civil rights position in the 1960s as an example of what?
an organization as a whole acting politically out of considerations broader than is members' individual interests
according to your text, to infer the distribution of political power from studying the laws on the books would be
too simplistic of an approach
The text presents the historical involvement of the united states in foreign affairs as
alternating between outward and inward movements
"most power derives from psychological and social factors such as friendship, loyalty, and prestige." This statement is most accurate about what?
political power, who governs
True or False: The us constitution was modeled on Aristotelian notions of democracy.
false
The two great central questions about politics are , Who governs and
Who pays? And how much?


Who governs? And To what ends?
The relationship between the two central questions of government can be best described in what way?
They are two distinct questions but each must be considered with the other in mind.
Individuals have power when they are able to
Get others to do what they want
The primary source of legitimate political authority in the United States is the
U.S. Constitution
Formal authority refers to a right to exercise power that is derived from an
Government office
Democratic centralism is a notion that formed the basis of political organization in
The defunct Soviet Union
The term democracy was originally associated with
Aristotle
The term participatory democracy applies most accurately to which of the following
Greece in the 4th century
The arrangement bi which individuals gain power through competition for the people is called
Representative democracy
The framers of the U.S. constitution favored
Representative democracy
When the people have such intense feeling about a political issue that the leasers feel obligated to follow the popular will, it is called.
Majoritarian politics
Those who possess a disproportionate share of political power are defined as
A Political Elite
Marxists claim that, in modern society, the two major class contending for power are
Capitalist and workers
Max Weber argued that Karl Marx had neglected the most important institution in modern times, namely the
Bureaucracy
Authorit
The right to use power
Pluralist theory
A theory that holds that political resources are divided among different kinds of elites, giving relevant interests the chance to influence decisions.
Democracy
A word use to describe at least three different political systems that each embody popular rule.
Power
The ability to get someone to act in accordance with your wishes.
Political power
Power used to determine who will hold government office and how the government will behave,
Legitimacy
what makes a law or constitution a source of right
Bureaucrats
Appointed officials who operate government agencies and large corporations.
Marxist Theory
The ideology espoused by Karl Marx which holds government is a reflection of economic forces, primarily ownership of the means of production.
Elitist theory
a theory that a few top leaders make the key decisions without reference
Power Elite
A political theory espoused by C. Wright Mills which holds that an elite of corporate leaders, top military officers, and key political leaders make most political decisions.
Mandate
A command or an authorization given by a political electorate to its representative.
Devolution
The transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, esp. by central government to local or regional administration.
Mcculloch v Maryland (1819)
The US Constitution is superior to any state law.
Dual Federalism
is the belief that the United States consists of two separate and equally powerful branches of government
American Dream
National ethos of the United States in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success.
Monopoly
When one industry is owned or controlled by one company, or one man
Anti-trust Legislation
law intended to promote free competition in the market place by outlawing monopolies

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