Glossary of Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, and Antihelmintic Agents

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4-Aminoquinoline derivatives
Antimalarial Agents that bind to nucleoproteins and interfere with protein synthesis
Drug used to treat parasitic worm infections
Drug that destroys or prevents the development of plasmodia in human hosts
Drug that destroys or prevents the development of single-celled microorganisms of the sub kingdom protozoa in human host
Erythrocytic phase
Phase of asexual cycle of the parasite that occurs inside the erythrocyte.
Exoerythrocytic phase
Phase of the asexual cycle of the parasite that occurs outside of the erythrocyte.
Helminthic infection
Parasitic worm infection
Most significant protozoal disease in terms of morbidity and mortality. Transmitted by infected female mosquito, blood transfusions, congenitally, or by contaminated drug users.
Organism that feeds on another living organism.
Parasitic protozoa
Protozoa that live on or in human beings.
Genus of protozoa that cause malaria.
What signs should patients report immediately with Antimalarials?
Tinnitus (ringing of the ears)
Hearing decrease (loss)
Visual difficulties
What should patients be told to do to decrease gastrointestinal upset with Antimalarials?
Take oral medications with food.
What may Quinidine products cause as side effects?
Dizziness, visual blurring, yellow discoloration of the skin, seizures, and dysrhythmias.
What should patient's know to expect from Metronidazole (antiprotozoal)?
It may leave a metallic taste in the mouth, and that urine may turn dark.
What type of food should Atovaquone (antiprotozoal) be taken with and why?
Fatty foods to increase plasma drug concentration.
What should patient's taking Antihelmintics report immediately?
Fatigue, fever, pallor, anorexia, darkened urine, and abdominal, leg, or back pain, which could indicate a sudden decrease in RBCs, Hgb, or WBCs.
Common protozoal infections
Amebiasis, giardiasis, pneumocytosis, toxoplasmosis, and trichomoniasis.
What are the most toxic protozoal infections caused by?
Cryptosporidium spp., Isospora belli, Pneumocystis carinii, and Toxoplasma gondii.
What four ways are protozoa transmitted?
Person-to-person contact
Ingestion of contaminated water or food
Direct contact with the parasite
The bite of an insect (mosquito or tick)
What drugs are used to treat P. carinii infections?
Atovaquone and pentamidine
What drug is antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and anthelmintic?
Which drugs directly kill protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica?
Iodoquinol and paromomycin
Anthelmintics are used to treat parasitic worm infections caused by?
Cestodes (tapeworms)
Nematodes (roundworms)
Trematodes (flukes)
What ways can you identify the causative worm?
Finding parasite ova or larvae in feces, urine, blood, sputum or tissue
How do anthelmintic drugs work?
They kill parasite directly or cause it to be expelled from the body.
What are contraindications to the use of antimalarial agents?
Pregnancy, psoriasis, porphyria, G6PD deficiency, and a history of drug allergy.
What are contraindications to the use of antiprotozoal agents?
Hypersensitivity, underlying renal, cardiac, thyroid, or liver disease, and pregnancy.
What are contraindications to the use of anthelmintic agents?
History of hypertension; hypersensitivity; visual difficulty; intestinal obstruction; inflammatory bowel disease; malaria; severe hepatic, renal, or cardiac disease; and pregnancy.
What are s/sx of Malaria?
Chills, profound sweating,h/a, n, joint aching, fatigue/exhaustion.
What drugs are only effective either during the erythrocytic phase or the exoerythocytic phase?
Antimalaria drugs
Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and pyrimethmine are effective during which phase?
Erythrocytic phase
What agent is one of the few that is effective in the exoerythrocytic phase?
How does Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine work?
They bind to nucleoproteins in the organism and interfere with protein synthesis and inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis, thereby killing the organism.
What are S/E of Antimalarials?
Diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distress, alopecia, dizziness, increased anxiety, rash, pruritus, headache.
What is Mefloquine used to treat?
Mild to moderate acute malaria and for the prevention and treatment of chloroquine resistant malaria and multiple drug resistant strains of P. falciparum.
What are the S/E of Mefloquine (antimalarial)?
CNS: h/a, dizziness, insomnia, visual disturbances, increased anxiety, convulsions, depression, and psychosis.
GI: n/v/d, abdominal pain or discomfort.
What does Quinine treat and in which form?
Oral form only indicated for the treatment of mild attacks. Paraenteral forms for the nanagement of acute attacks of multiple drug resistant P. falciparum.

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