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Glossary of Antifungal and Antiviral Agents: Antiretroviral Agents

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Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) include:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) include:
a. Zidovudine (AZT) (Retrovir)
b. Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
c. Zalcitabine (ddC) (Hivid)
d. Stavudine (d4T) (Zerit)
e. Lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir)
f. Abacavir (Ziagen)
g. Tenofovir (Viread)
h. Emtricitabine (FTC/ETC?)Emtriva
Zidovudine (AZT) Retrovir
method of action:
Zidovudine (AZT) Retrovir
method of action: Nucleoside analog that inhbits viral replication by BINDING to viral DNA polymerase (REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE)
*this enzyme is involved in the transcription of viral RNA to DNA
Zidovudine (AZT) Retrovir
pharmacotherapy:
Zidovudine (AZT) Retrovir
pharmacotherapy:
a. Clinically used in combination with one or more other antiretrovirals in the management of HIV infection
b. reduces MATERNAL-FETAL transmission rate by two-thirds (from 26% to 8%)
Zidovudine (AZT) Retrovir
safety profile:
Zidovudine (AZT) Retrovir
safety profile:
a. Hematologic: anemia, granulocytopenia
b. Headache, myalgias, insomnia
Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
method of action:
Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
method of action: similar to zidovudine (AZT)
Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
pharmacokinetics:
Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
pharmacokinetics:
a. Formulated with buffers to prevent gastric acid degradation
b. Food decreases absorption by 50%
Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
pharmacotherapy:
Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
pharmacotherapy: Combination therapy in the management of HIV infection
Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
safetey profile:
Didanosine (ddI) (Videx)
safetey profile:
*Most serious adverse reaction is pancreatitis
Zalcitabine (ddC) (Hivid)
method of action:
Zalcitabine (ddC) (Hivid)
method of action: similar to zidovudine (AZT)
Zalcitabine (ddC) (Hivid)
pharmacotherapy:
Zalcitabine (ddC) (Hivid)
pharmacotherapy: Combination therapy in the management of HIV infection
Stavudine (d4T) (Zerit)
method of action:
Stavudine (d4T) (Zerit)
method of action: similar to zidovudine (AZT)
Stavudine (d4T) (Zerit)
pharmacotherapy:
Stavudine (d4T) (Zerit)
pharmacotherapy: Combination therapy in the management of HIV infection
Stavudine (d4T) (Zerit)
safety profile:
Stavudine (d4T) (Zerit)
safety profile: Peripheral neuropathy common (20%)
Lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir)
method of action:
Lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir)
method of action: similar to zidovudine (AZT)
Lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir)
pharmacotherapy:
Lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir)
pharmacotherapy: Combination therapy in the management of HIV infection
Lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir)
safety profile:
Lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir)
safety profile:
*Well tolerated
Abacavir (Ziagen)
method of action:
Abacavir (Ziagen)
method of action: similar to zidovudine (AZT)
Abacavir (Ziagen)
pharmacotherapy:
Abacavir (Ziagen)
pharmacotherapy: Combination therapy for the management of HIV infection
Abacavir (Ziagen)
safety profile:
Abacavir (Ziagen)
safety profile:
a. General: nausea, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea
b. Serious: 5% incidence of severe hypersensitivity that includes rash, fever, flue-like symptoms, may be life-threatening
Tenofovir (Viread)
method of action:
Tenofovir (Viread)
method of action: similar to zidovudine (AZT)
Tenofovir (Viread)
pharmacotherapy:
Tenofovir (Viread)
pharmacotherapy: Combination therapy for the management of HIV infection
Emtricitabine (FTC/ETC?) Emtriva
info:
Emtricitabine (FTC/ETC?) Emtriva
info: FLOURINATED DERIVATIVE of lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir)
NRTI Combination Products includes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
NRTI Combination Products includes:
1. Combivir
2. Trizivir
3. Truvada
4. Epzicom

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