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Glossary of Antibiotics that interfere with protein synthesis

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Erythromycin
(Macrolide - 50S)
DOC: Mycoplasma pneumonia, legionella infections, diptheria infections.
Tox: dec. P450
Clarithromycin
(Macrolide - 50S)
TX: H. influenzae, Mycoplasma avium complex, H. Pylori
Tox: dec. P450
Azithromycin
(Macrolide - 50S)
TX: Mycoplasma avium complex, toxoplasmosis encephalitis, chlamydia trachomatis
Clindamycin
Lincosamide (50S)
-DOC: Anaerobes
-Tox: pseudomembranous enterocolitis
Chloramphenicol
50S
-DOC: salmonella typhosa
-Tox: "GRAY BABY SYNDROME", aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, transient bone marrow depression
Tetracyclines
(30S)
DOC: Cholera, rickettsia, coxiella, relapsing fever, chalamydial diseases, ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, lymphogranuloma
Tox: Discolor/damage teeth, bones, nails b/c chelation of Ca, Mg, Al; Fanconi syndrome
Aminoglycosides, general
(30S)
-blocks initiation
-promotes misreading
-poor GI absorption
-excreted unchanged in urine
-Concentration dependent - administer one large dose daily
Tox: Ototox, nephrotox, curare-like syndrome, electroylte imbalance
Streptomycin
Aminoglycoside (30S)
-Used IN COMBO for tx of TB, strep faecalis, endocarditis, plague
Neomycin
Aminoglycoside (30S)
-VERY toxic
-topical use or bowel sterilization ONLY
-for G+/G- including mycobacteria
Kanamycin
Aminoglycoside (30S)
-very high misreading of mRNA
-very toxic
-seldomly used
Gentamicin
Aminoglycoside (30S)
-active against many G- (P-PEck)
Tobramycin
New Aminoglycoside (30S)
-for bacteremia by G- Bacilli
Amikacin
New Aminoglycoside (30S)
-for resistent strains
Netilmicin
New Aminoglycoside (30S)
-against G- bacilli
-less toxic
Viomycin
New Aminoglycoside (30S)
-second line drug for TB
Spectinomycin
AminoCYCLITOL (30S)
-only for acute gonococcal urethritis, proctitis, cervicitis
-LOW renal tox
-NO ototoxicity
Streptogramins A+B
Quinupristin and Dalfopristin
-inhibit 50S, bactericidal
-for resistant bacteria
-SE: arthralgia-myalgia, inc. P450
Oxazoladinones
Linezolid
-for G+ multiple drug resistant
-TOX: GI, headache, thrombocytopenia, MAOI

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