Glossary of Antibiotics from chapter 10 Microbiology
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- What bacterial species from soil are made into antibiotics?
- Streptomyces spp. and Bacillus Spp.
- What fungi species from soil are made into antibiotics?
- Penicillium Spp. and Cephalorsporin spp.
- Which one supplies more thn 50% of the current antibiotics?
- What is a narrow spectrum antibiotic?
- An antibiotic that targets a limited number of species.
- What is a broad spectrum antibiotic?
- An antibiotic that target a broad range of species.
- What is special about the mycobacteria?
- The wax like mycolic acid that replaces LPS. This resists penetration by antibiotics.
- Explian Rickettsia and Chlamydia.
- They are obligatory intracellular parasites, gram (-) enveloped cells. Chlamydia spp. have no peptidoglycan, and rickettsia spp. are transmitted by insects.
- What are the advantages of narrow spectrum antibiotics?
- The antibiotic is more specific so it can target the pathogen. Also normal microbiota does not take as big a hit because it is so specific.
- What are the disadvantages or narrow spectrum antibiotics?
- The disadvantages are that it is only effective against a limited species, and can't have widespread use.
- What are superinfections?
- These are infections that only occur because of antibiotic use. the normal flora of the body is damaged so oppurtunistic pathogens are free to infect the body.
- What are the prime modes of antibiotic action?
- 1) inhibition of cell wall synthesis
2) inhibition of protein synthesis
3) disruption of plasma membrane
4) inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
5) inhibition of metabolite synthsis
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