Glossary of Antibiotics from chapter 10 Microbiology

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What bacterial species from soil are made into antibiotics?
Streptomyces spp. and Bacillus Spp.
What fungi species from soil are made into antibiotics?
Penicillium Spp. and Cephalorsporin spp.
Which one supplies more thn 50% of the current antibiotics?
What is a narrow spectrum antibiotic?
An antibiotic that targets a limited number of species.
What is a broad spectrum antibiotic?
An antibiotic that target a broad range of species.
What is special about the mycobacteria?
The wax like mycolic acid that replaces LPS. This resists penetration by antibiotics.
Explian Rickettsia and Chlamydia.
They are obligatory intracellular parasites, gram (-) enveloped cells. Chlamydia spp. have no peptidoglycan, and rickettsia spp. are transmitted by insects.
What are the advantages of narrow spectrum antibiotics?
The antibiotic is more specific so it can target the pathogen. Also normal microbiota does not take as big a hit because it is so specific.
What are the disadvantages or narrow spectrum antibiotics?
The disadvantages are that it is only effective against a limited species, and can't have widespread use.
What are superinfections?
These are infections that only occur because of antibiotic use. the normal flora of the body is damaged so oppurtunistic pathogens are free to infect the body.
What are the prime modes of antibiotic action?
1) inhibition of cell wall synthesis
2) inhibition of protein synthesis
3) disruption of plasma membrane
4) inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
5) inhibition of metabolite synthsis

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