Glossary of Anth 400A Final
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- Define Social Morphology;
- refers to social structure
- Define social physiology;
- refers to social function
- Define Diachronic;
- This means 'historical' or 'concerned with the past, and change through time'
- Define Synchronic;
- ahistorical; not concerned with change over time.
- Define 'Social Structure' in one word;
- Define Social Function;
- The role individual parts play in maintaining the structural whole;
- Genealogical method;
- In non-Western societies, kinship is the nub, which is best understood through the study of cultural history and psychology;
- British social anthropological thought - concern with social structure;
- 1) Radcliffe-Brown: idea of how the parts of a society contribute to whole of society;
2) Malinowski - culture responds to biological needs in a hierarchical way;
- the synchronic concern with social structure and social function;
- Organic analogy
- the thought that society is like an organism;
- Folk taxonomies
- culturally conditioned map of a semantic domain;
- Cultural Neo-Evolutionism
- 20th Century cultural evolutionism
- New Archaeology
- archaeology that is nomothetic
- White's nomothetic study of culture
- the conversion of energy in the universe as it relates to culturology;
- Cognitive anthropology
- concerned with folk taxonomies and semantic domains. It is 'emic'
- Inside point of view; derived from the word 'phonemic' which refers to linguitic meaning;
- Outsiders point of view; derived from the word 'phonetic' which refers to linguistic sounds;
- Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis;
- the thought that the mental structure of languages and cultures are correlated; One influences the other and vise versa.
- Semantic domain
- mental domains of cultural meaning; focus of cognitive anthropology
- What is Freudian Anthropology also called?
- Psychodynamic anthropology
- What are 'primary cultural institutions' and what are they also called?
- Primary cultural institutions are those institutions that decide how a child is raised, and they shape one's basic personality. It is also called 'Maintenance Systems' - but note that this latter term excludes Freudian thought
- Secondary Cultural Systems
- also called 'projective systems' = these are the institutions that are projections of basic personality structure which help ppl cope with life (ie: society, politics, religion)
- Basic Personality Structure
- shaped by primary and projected to secondary institutions;
AKA: "Personality Variables" (excludes Freud)
- What, according to White, are the four stages of cultural evolution?
- tools, the Neolithic Revolution (ie: domestication of plants and animals), fossil fuels, and atomic energy
- Explain the Layer-Cake Model
- White's idea - technology at the bottom, social and political organizations are in the middle, and ideology is at the top.
- Explain White's Thermodynamic Law
- Culture develops as ways to harnass energy are developed and as technology advances.
C = E x T
- Cultural Ecology
- Interactions between cultural and environmental variables
- Adaptation (as it relates to culture)
- (Cultural ecology) result of cultures adjusting to environments
- simplest form of social organization (followed by tribe, then chiefdom, then state)
- What is 'entropy'
- Disorder in the universe
- (Kroeber) Culture distinct from psychology and above biology
- Great Man Theory of History
- the thought that individuals have a greater effect on history that historical circumstances
- search for cultural patterns
- What is psychological anthropology concerned with?
- the relationships between culture and personality
- how culture shapes an individual
- Benedict's idea that each culture has its own personality configuration
- which anthropological theorist studied this term did a national character study of a 'culture-at-a-distance'
- Benedict; Remember that a) WWII was happening, making it near to impossible for Benedict to have traveled to Japan; and b) Benedict found fieldwork hard because of her partial deafness
- What is another name for maintenance systems?
- primary cultural institutions
- What is another name for secondary cultural institutions?
- Projective systems
- What is another name for "basic personality structure"?
- Personality variables
- List a few of the anthropologists who studied:
1) psychological anth;
3) Cultural Neo Evolutionism;
- 1) Mead, Benedict, Sapir;
3) White, Steward, Childe;
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