Glossary of Anth 400A Final

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Define Social Morphology;
refers to social structure
Define social physiology;
refers to social function
Define Diachronic;
This means 'historical' or 'concerned with the past, and change through time'
Define Synchronic;
ahistorical; not concerned with change over time.
Define 'Social Structure' in one word;
Define Social Function;
The role individual parts play in maintaining the structural whole;
Genealogical method;
In non-Western societies, kinship is the nub, which is best understood through the study of cultural history and psychology;
British social anthropological thought - concern with social structure;
1) Radcliffe-Brown: idea of how the parts of a society contribute to whole of society;

2) Malinowski - culture responds to biological needs in a hierarchical way;
the synchronic concern with social structure and social function;
Organic analogy
the thought that society is like an organism;
Folk taxonomies
culturally conditioned map of a semantic domain;
Cultural Neo-Evolutionism
20th Century cultural evolutionism
New Archaeology
archaeology that is nomothetic
White's nomothetic study of culture
the conversion of energy in the universe as it relates to culturology;
Cognitive anthropology
concerned with folk taxonomies and semantic domains. It is 'emic'
Inside point of view; derived from the word 'phonemic' which refers to linguitic meaning;
Outsiders point of view; derived from the word 'phonetic' which refers to linguistic sounds;
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis;
the thought that the mental structure of languages and cultures are correlated; One influences the other and vise versa.
Semantic domain
mental domains of cultural meaning; focus of cognitive anthropology
What is Freudian Anthropology also called?
Psychodynamic anthropology
What are 'primary cultural institutions' and what are they also called?
Primary cultural institutions are those institutions that decide how a child is raised, and they shape one's basic personality. It is also called 'Maintenance Systems' - but note that this latter term excludes Freudian thought
Secondary Cultural Systems
also called 'projective systems' = these are the institutions that are projections of basic personality structure which help ppl cope with life (ie: society, politics, religion)
Basic Personality Structure
shaped by primary and projected to secondary institutions;
AKA: "Personality Variables" (excludes Freud)
What, according to White, are the four stages of cultural evolution?
tools, the Neolithic Revolution (ie: domestication of plants and animals), fossil fuels, and atomic energy
Explain the Layer-Cake Model
White's idea - technology at the bottom, social and political organizations are in the middle, and ideology is at the top.
Explain White's Thermodynamic Law
Culture develops as ways to harnass energy are developed and as technology advances.
C = E x T
Cultural Ecology
Interactions between cultural and environmental variables
Adaptation (as it relates to culture)
(Cultural ecology) result of cultures adjusting to environments
simplest form of social organization (followed by tribe, then chiefdom, then state)
What is 'entropy'
Disorder in the universe
(Kroeber) Culture distinct from psychology and above biology
Great Man Theory of History
the thought that individuals have a greater effect on history that historical circumstances
search for cultural patterns
What is psychological anthropology concerned with?
the relationships between culture and personality
how culture shapes an individual
Benedict's idea that each culture has its own personality configuration
which anthropological theorist studied this term did a national character study of a 'culture-at-a-distance'
Benedict; Remember that a) WWII was happening, making it near to impossible for Benedict to have traveled to Japan; and b) Benedict found fieldwork hard because of her partial deafness
What is another name for maintenance systems?
primary cultural institutions
What is another name for secondary cultural institutions?
Projective systems
What is another name for "basic personality structure"?
Personality variables
List a few of the anthropologists who studied:
1) psychological anth;
2) structural-functionalism;
3) Cultural Neo Evolutionism;
4) Functionalist;
1) Mead, Benedict, Sapir;
2) Radcliffe-Brown;
3) White, Steward, Childe;
4) Malinowski;

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