Glossary of Answers from Qbank Endocrine

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Somatotropic adenoma would affect glucose tolerance how?
Impaired glucose tolerance
Describe how coma could result from complications of DM II?
Osmotic diuresis + dehydration = severe hyperosmolarity... Osmotic loss of water from neurons can produce coma
Even small amounts of insulin are sufficient to prevent..?
Beta hydroxybutyrate is a...?
Ketone body
An XY fetus with a mutated dysfunctional androgen receptor molecule would develop how?
male sexual development is impaired and female external genitalia are formed.
Because the androgen receptor in hypothalamic and pituitary tissue is also defective, normal testosterone suppression of pituitary gonadotrophs is absent
How does the pituitary affect the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to the action of insulin?
GH - anti-insulin effects on liver and muscle. ACTH causes increased cortisol = decreased insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. TSH also tends to increase blood glucose levels
ANP is released when?
When the atria are distended - suppresses the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Graves is caused by...?
Increased production of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins
T or F? Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are always associated with increased and decreased radioactive iodine uptake, respectively.
The sweating and palpitations of hypoglycemia are caused by...?
Link the following: dissecting osteitis and chronic renal failure
Hyperparathyroidism results from decreased serum calcium and increased serum phosphate (sequelae of renal failure). This may lead to osteomalacia and osteitis fibrosa cystica, which is classically associated with dissecting osteitis.
Thyrotoxic crisis is most commonly seen in which disease?
Inadequately treated Graves' disease
What are the HLA associations of DM I ?
DR3 and DR4
What are the two most dangerous hormonal deficiencies?
Glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone
Why does mild renal failure cause hyperkalemia?
Deficient renin production by the damaged kidney causes decreased secretion of aldosterone
What types of infections are more frequently considered with Addison's?
Tuberculosis, fungal infections
How to clinically distinguish primary from secondary adrenocortical insufficiency?
Secondary is not associated with skin hyperpigmentation (which results from increased production of ACTH precursor, which also stimulates melanocytes)
Nonenzymatic glycosylation is seen in which disease?
Diabetes mellitus
Euthyroid sick syndrome?
After systemic illnesses or stresses, there can be a decrease in 5'-monodeiodinase activity in peripheral tissues. Causes a decreased conversion of T4 to T3
Describe how a short-term vs long-term severe Mg deficiency affects PTH?
Short-term - increased PTH
Long-term, severe - decreased PTH
Which zones of the adrenal cortex does Addison's affect?
All three
Early manifestations of cretinism?
Difficulty feeding, somnolence, failure to thrive, and constipation
Chronic thyoiditis is aka.?
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
How would a decrease in GH affect IGF-1 release?
What is testicular feminization?
Androgen insensitivity due to an androgen receptor defect
PTH acts on which biochemical pathway?
Increased intracellular cAMP
Somatostatin would inhibit the release of what from the pituitary?
GH and TSH
Antimicrosomal antibodies are seen in which thyroid condition?
Hashimoto thyroiditis
ACTH affects which zones of the adrenal cortex?
Inner two - fasciculata and reticularis
When is gynecomastia normal/common?
Adolescent boys during puberty
hCG is in the same hormone family as...?
TSH, FSH, and LH
T or F? In a patient with DM II, you would expect deactivation of fatty acid synthase
False - fatty acid synthase is rapidly induced in the liver by high glucose and insulin levels
What is Chvostek's sign?
Facial muscle contraction on tapping in front of the ear
Detects hypocalcemia
Tx for acute hypocalcemia?
Calcium gluconate and cholecalciferol
Which metabolite helps to raise serum calcium by increasing proximal intestinal absorption of calcium?
Cholecalciferol (Vit D3, 1,25-OH2-D3)
T or F? Hypercalcemia can 'hyperstabilize' excitable tissue membranes and reduce normal responsiveness
Laron dwarfism?
Congenital absence of growth hormone receptors...detected by an absence of GH binding protein, which is identical to the extracellular portion of the GH receptor
T or F? Plasma levels of proinsulin are increased in patients with insulinomas?
Prolactin has close structural homology with...?
Child who develops weight loss despite increased food intake?
Diabetes mellitus
Sheehan's syndrome?
Hypopituitarism due to ischemic damage to the pituitary resulting from excessive hemorrhage during parturition
T or F? Somatotropes are basophils.
False - they are acidophils
Which drugs are antidiabetic agents that increase insulin sensitivity through a variety of mechanisms that result in decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased insulin-dependent muscle glucose uptake?
Hyperthyroid patient with mononuclear cell infilitrate in thyroid with multinucleated giant cells, follicular disruption, and loss of colloid..?
Subacute thyroiditis (aka granulomatous giant cell, de Quervain thyroiditis)
Which syndrome is associated with coarctation of the aorta?
Turner syndrome
Elevated anion gap, decreased arterial blood pH, and elevated blood lactate is a rare complication of which drug?
This disease is characterized among other things by Hurthle cells (oncocytes) and associated with various thymic disorders
Hashimoto thyroiditis
Mucosal neuromas in a patient with a marfanoid syndrome is a marker for...?
Pituitary apoplexy is what? may result after...?
Life-threatening infarction of the pituitary gland. May result after obstetric hemorrhage: Sheehan syndrome
How would clonidine affect pancreatic insulin secretion?
Clonidine, an alpha2-receptor agonist, would inhibit pancreatic insulin secretion
T or F? Glucagon, gastrin, secretin, and CCK all stimulate insulin secretion
Which category of drugs could blunt or prevent the premonitory signs and symptoms of acute episodes of hypoglycemia in a diabetic patient?
Beta adrenergic blockers - such as propnalol
Solid balls of neoplastic follicular cells in a thyroid nodule biopsy?
Papillary carcinoma
Riedel thyroiditis?
Rocklike stroma, fibrous reaction that may involve adjacent structures
Which pancreatic tumor could cause necrotizing skin eruptions on the legs?
Glucagonoma - alpha cell tumor
How does propylthioracil work?
Inhibiting the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
Which oncogene are MEN II and III associated with?
Ret oncogene
Thyroid gland is enclosed by which fascia?
Pretracheal fascia
GIP - how does it affect insulin secretion?
Increases beta cell release of insulin
Nortriptyline - what is it, and how could it cause galactorrhea?
A TCA, inhibits dopamine pathways, stimulating prolactin, which causes galactorrhea
What is the most reliable indicator of metastatic potential of a pheochromocytoma?
The actual presence of distant metastases
How does adult polycystic kidney disease affect aldosterone?
Pressure exerted by the cysts can compromise glomerular blood flow, stimulating increased renin and thus increased aldosterone
What is VMA and what is it used for?
Vanillylmandelic acid, a norepinephrine metabolite. Urine levels of this can diagnose pheochromocytoma
Which one drains directly into the IVC: left renal vein or right renal vein?
Right renal vein
Which thyroid condition frequently develops after a viral infection?
Subacute granulomatous (de Quervain's thyroiditis)

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