Glossary of Animal Health 8
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- What are 6 effects of parasite infection?
- 1. Compete for nutrients
2. Cause anemia (suck blood)
3. Physical obstruction
4. Tissue destruction
5. Release toxins
6. Spread disease
- What are the three types of of Roundworms (scientific names)
- 1. Toxocara canis
2. Toxocara cati
3. Toxocara leonina
- What are the 3 modes of transmission of roundworms?
- 1. Placenta
3. ingestion (can survive in soil for years)
- Roundworm is the largest or smallest of all internal parasites?
- Where does Roundworm reside in the body?
- Adults are in sm intestine
- Roundworms affect what kind of animals (including their age group)?
- Virtually all neonatal puppies and kittens
- Adult animals are immune to this type of internal parasite.
- Roundworms. Therefor primarily a problem in young animals
- What are the 4 signs of Roundworms?
- 1. Poor growth and condition
2. Pot bellied
3. Dull, dry hair coat
4. +/- diarrhea and vomiting
- How does one diagnosis roundworm infestation?
- 1. Assume infection
2. Clinical signs
3. See parasites in feces or vomit
4. Fecal exam
- What are the two treatments for roundworm?
- 1. Piperazine
*2. Pyrantel (strongid)
- What are the 3 public health significances of roundworm?
- *1. Visceral larval migrans (toxocarosis)
2. Primarily in young children ingesting contaminated soil
3. Whelping areas highly contaminated
- What are the three types of Hookworm?
- *1. Ancylostoma caninum
2. Ancylostoma tubaeforme
3. Uncinaria stenocephalus
- What are the 3 modes of transmission of Hookworm?
- 1. Ingestion
3. Skin penetration
- Where are adult hookworms found in the body?
- Small intestine
- What are two signs of hookworms?
- 1. Anemia
2. Weak, pale, unthrifty mucous membranes
- Which internal parasite is a primary problem in young puppies w/large exposure?
- Hookworm can deplete the host of up to how much blood/adult worm/day?
- How does one diagnos hookworm?
- 1. Assume infection
2. Clinical signs
3. Fecal exam
- What is the type of whipworm called?
- Trichuris vulpis
- How is whipworm transmitted?
- Ingestion: eggs may survive for years in soil
- Where are adult whipworms found in the body?
- Cecum and colon
- What are the two signs of whipworm?
- 1. Usually none
2. If large load- weight loss and bloody diarrhea
- How does one diagnos whipworm?
- Fecal exam
- What are the two types of tapeworm?
- *1. Diphlydium caninum
2. Taenia taeniaformis
- What are the two ways Diplydium caninum (Tapeworm type) transmitted? What is the intermediate host?
- Ingestion of fleas and lice
****Fleas are the intermediate hosts
- How is Taenia taeniaformis (type of Tapeworm) transmitted?
- Ingestion of raw meats and fish
- What are the five signs of tapeworm?
- 1. Generally none
3. Tail rubbing
- How does one diagnos tapeworm (2 ways)?
- 1. See segments around anus and in feces
2. Fecal exam
- What are two ways of to control tapeworm?
- 1. Flea control
2. Avoid raw meat and fish
- What is the type of heartworm called?
- Dirofilaria immitis
- Which internal parasite is distributed worldwide?
- What is the only commonly infected mammal and therefor primary resevoir of hearworm?
- What is the only living organism that is able to incubate D. immitis (heartworm) to its infective form and then transmit it to new doggy host?
- What is the life cycle of heartworm?
- 1. Dog w/microfilaria in blood
2. Mosquito ingestion
3. Microfilariae develop into infective larvae in mosquito (~3weeks)
4. Mosquito bites a dog, infecting it w/larvae
5. Larvae develop in dog and end up in heart (2-3months)
6. Adults in heart copulate and produce eggs
7. Eggs develop into microfilariae
8. Microfilariae in bloodstream....cylce repeats
- What are three signs of heartworm?
- 1. Cough
2. Excercise intolerance
3. Ascites (abdominal swelling due to fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity)
- What type of dog is heartworm seen most in?
- Adult dogs w/chronic or recurrent infections
- What are 2 ways to diagnos heartworm?
- 1. Identify microfilariae
2. Antigen and antibody testing
- What are two ways to treat heartworm?
- 1. Elimination of adults
2. Elimination of microfilariae
- What are 3 ways to prevent heartworm in microfilariae negative dogs?
- 1. Ivermectin: kills microfilariae/infective larvae
2. Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor)
3. Other Preventatives
- What is the scientific name for ear mites?
- Otodectes cynotis
- What are the 3 facts of ear mites (include how its spread)?
- *1. Highly contagious
2. Direct contact
3. Not species specific
- What are five signs of ear mites?
- *1. Intense itching (pruritis)
2. Ear scratching
3. Head shaking
4. Trauma to back of ears and head from scratching
5. Dry, dark, waxy exudate in ear canals
- What are three ways to diagnos ear mites?
- 1. Clinical signs
3. See adults w/otoscope
- What are the two treatments for ear mites?
- 1. Various
2. Tresaderm + ivermectin
- What is the cause of Demodecosis (ie demodectic mange)?
- Demodex canis (mite)
- Is Demodex canis a normal inhabitant of canine skin?
- Yes, in small numbers
- When does demodecosis (mange) occur?
- When large numbers of mites colonize the hair follicles and skin.
- What are the two types of mange?
- 1. Localized
- Where is localized demodectic mange typically found? What's it look like?
- Around the face (eyes, lips). One to several areas of mild redness (erythema) and hair loos (alopecia)
- Does localized mange typically induce pruritic (severe itching)? What group of dog is it generally found in?
- No, pruritic is not a symptom. Found in young dogs (3-12months)
- How can localized demodectic mange treated?
- It's usually self limiting and will heal spontaneously
- What is one of the most sever canine skin diseases?
- Generalized demodectic mange; it can be fatel
- What group of dogs is Generalized demodectic mange typically found in?
- Young dogs
- How does generalized demodectic mange usually start out?
- Often begins as localized form but instead of getting better, it gets worse and spreads to head, legs and trunk; lesions coalesce to form plaques
- Generalized mange itself is not the only issue in an infected host, what often happens with the lesions demodectic mange causes?
- Lesions often have a secondary infection by bacteria
- What do chronic lesions caused by generalized demodectic mange look like?
- Crusting, infected, thickened and hemorrhagic
- What do most dogs with Demodectic mange also have?
- Immunodeficiency problems.
- What are two ways to diagnos generalized demodectic mange?
- 1. Clinical sings
*2. Skin scrapings
- What is the treatment for generalized demodectic mange?
- What causes Canine Scabies (Sarcoptic mange)?
- Sarcoptes scabei var canis (mite)....ugh, what kind scientific name is this!
- How is Canine scabies (Sarcoptic mange) transmitted?
- Direct contact
- Is canine scabies (mange) highly contagious? Is it host specific? How long can the mites survive off host?
- Highly contagious. It is host specific. Mites can only live for several hours off host
- Describe the activity of the female sarcoptic scabei var canis mite
- She burrows into epidermis, lays 2-3 eggs/day, burrows at a rate of 2-3mm/day and dies in 2-4weeks
- What are four clinical signs of canine scabies (sarcoptic mange)?
- *1. Intense pruritis: ears and elbows first, but can affect any area of skin
2. Ear scratching
3. Head shaking
4. Dermatitis consisting of erythema (redness), papules, alopecia, and hemorrhagic crusts
- What are five ways to diagnos canine scabies (sarcoptic mange)?
- 1. Skin scrapings
2. Fecal material
4. Adult mites
- What are three ways to treat canine scabies (sarcoptic mange)?
- 1. Acaricidal dips
3. +/- steroids to tx pruritis
- What are two public health issues from canine scabies (sarcoptic mange)?
- 1. Temporary infection of humans (mostly around belt-line); mites die quickly but itching and lesions may last weeks
2. Highly contagious to other dogs
- What causes Feline scabies?
- Notoedres cati
- How does Feline scabies spread on the cat?
- Ear pinna to face, eyelids, neck, then to feet and perineum
- What are two symptoms of Feline scabies?
- *1. Intense pruritis
2. Skin becomes thickened, wrinkled and folded w/partial alopecia
- What are two types of fleas?
- 1. Ctenocephalides canis
2. Ctenocephalides felis
*Sm, brown, wingless insects tt suck blood and feed sporadically on birds and mammals
- Describe the life cycle of a flea
- 1. female lays eggs off host (3-18eggs/female), or eggs quickly fall off host
2. Eggs hatch in 9-200 days
3. 3rd molt produces an opaque white larva tt spins a cacoon
4. Pupates inside for 1 week- one yr
5. Adult flea breaks out & finds host
6. Fleas do not live more than 5,000 feet from infestation site
- What two things do fleas play a role as intermediate host to?
- 1. Tapeworms
2. Flea allergy dermatitis
- What may be the most common disease of dogs?
- Flea allergy dermatitis
- What is flea allergy dermatitis?
- Hypersensitivity to flea saliva
- What causes the hypersensitivity of flea allergy dermatitis?
- -Haptan (incomplete antigen) in flea's saliva combines w/an adjuvant on dog/cat's skin to form a complete antigen
-This complete antigen causes hypersensitivity rxn wn dog/cat is challenged by new flea bites
- What are the five clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis? (Non chronic cases)
- 1. Pruritis
2. Self trauma
3. Acute moist dermatitis
5. Crusts on lower back, base of tail, medial surfaces of hind legs and ventral pelvic area
- What is a sign of chronic flea allergy dermatitis?
- Skin becomes thickened, hairless, grey and folded
- What are the 3 ways to prevent/treat flea allergy dermatitis?
- *1. Flea control
3. Hyposensitization w/flea anitgen over long periods of time (tiny amounts injected to build up immunity to antigen: only 50-75% effective which lasts forever once finished after a couple of years).
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