Glossary of Ancient Mediterranean Exam 1
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- 5th century from Helleacarnassus historian that objectively writes about wars/events bet. Greeks and Persians "historia" (talks to both sides) 1st to apply a method of writing history:researching and critically analyzing.
- 612 famous epic fragments date back to old Babylonian period (2000-1595) King of Uruk "Gilgamesh" is hero, flood from rain destroys world, bad but becomes good
- Bronze Age
- Earliest Age of civ.-dark ages
- dvpt. of Mesopotamia
- land bet. rivers. beg. of civilization attributed to the communal effort required to dig canals for irrigation. 1st civ. to dvp. writing "cuneiform" evolved into "sumerian" language. "Akkadian" is the other spoken language. historians can't separate the civs. ~5000 canals arose from farmers giving ag. surplus, making trade and communication easier allowing resources to concentrate in urban centers
Requirements and how arise?
- Has to have cities, not just ag. and villages, writing, social differentiation, technology, gvt. architecture, labor division.
Arise: possibly ag. (to create surplus), power, trade, geography
- Non-semitic ppl. maybe where 1st civ started.
- rosetta stone
- 3 diff languages
where, who ruled, other names, reasons for dvpt.
- 1st major city we know of 2300, ruled by King Sargon of Akkad. Southern Mesopotamia. sometimes call babylonia or sumeria. possible dvpt: needs heavy irrigation ppl specialize certain skills labor specialization need system to exchange goods and an institution to organize that. religious temple redistribs goods. controls economy. religious leader is most important. sargons washed hands in the med and persian gulf
- grandson of king sargon called himself kish lifted to god status
- difficult to invade b/c desert to w and s.
- King Menes 3100
- unifies upper and lower egypt, establishes 1st dynasty, brought civ. and law, founded the capital "memphis"
- incarnation of hawk-god horus and sons of sun-god re
- 2686-2181 Old Kingdom
- At giza near cairo, 3 pyramids and great sphinx, largest one "the great pyramid" made by/for king Khufu/ Cheops. Sphinx prob. for king khafre who reigned after him
- 1500's king thutmose III
- extended Egyptian rule to Euphrates
- king Thutmose I
- claims conquered whole area but not really
- King Amenhotep IV (Ahkenaten)
- bans worship of amen-re says worship new god Aten but when dies, aten goes away and ppl worship amen-re again
- Indo-european language. emerged 1700's. capital hatusas. 1600 much asia-minor they controlled. queens powerful. ppl known as hatti. (found out how to make steel in 1250)
- international lingo of egypt/babylonia/ hittites
- Battle of Kadesh
- Egypt claimed victory but not true b/c hittites got land. peace treate. ramesses II marries hittite princess
- Dark Ages (1200-800)
- Cities to villages. little known. asia minor, greece, crete, syria and lavant (cities sacked and burnt) come back with alphabet and inventions though. possible reasons: famine, external and internal enemies. hittite and mycenean greek all came to and end basically
- Sea Peoples
- Pharaoh ramesses III says he defeated ja conspiracy of islands that destroyed hittites (might not have)massive organized tribe 1200 invaders coming from north to south destroying everything in path. eastern med. (mycenian, hittites, ugarit-all wiped out) egypt may have stopped them, no narrative to explain, they come by land too. it's likely that tribal migrations brought them there into conflict but don't know why migrated
- cemetary, largest building from dark ages
- island of crete, arrived ~7000, central city knossos-huge palace. king minos. story of poseidon and white bull for power, king minos punishment of his wife falling in love and being impregnated by a bull. gave birth to minotaur
- Myceneans and minoans
- on minoa around 1470 linear a tablets go to linear b which is from mycenea. palace is destroyed maybe EQ or maybe myceneans since the took over afterwards
- 1700-1100 when flourished. mainland greece. Mycenea- home of King Agamemnon- leader of Trojan expedition. Grave circle A-19 bodies-3gold masks (one called mask of agamemnon) it showed that mycenean culture was civilized as early as 1700. they had cyclopean walls
- pop increase possibilites are food increase have increase # kids at a younger age (olympics 776)
- Colonization Mvt.
- greeks expansion overseas. it presupposed communication and trade contacts and excellent sea fairing. (Athens and sparta not involved)most likely b/c pop growth and politics. other possible reasons are religious and imperialism, herodotus says it's b.c of politics and famine
- 3 reproccussions of the persian war
- 1-athens goes into an empire
2-athens- modified democracy
3-greece- nonhellenic identity
- from Zagros Mtns. King Cyrus- 1st king.
20 satraps, ionian cities ruled by aristocrats- tyrants
- ionian revolt
- athens and eretria helped burn sardis. real reason was taxation and tyrants but herodutus says more personal like quest for power
- King Darius
- Persian king, lead invasion of attica in 490 b/c of taxation issues and persian tyrants but not so much because of revenge
- Battle of Marathon 490
- persians met and routed by Athenian hoplite army, 10 generals but militades won the battle (9/11). thin line won edges only 192 athenian soldiers killed. phillipidus runs back from marathon to athens to announce victory and then collapses and dies and thats why there's a marathon race ran today
- Thermopylae and Salamis 480
- King Xerxes of persian (darius' son) lead invasion, bridged boats for soldiers across hellespoint-spartans (main military power) hold them back at thermopylae but they find a way around and themistokles beats them in Salamis strait (navy was so good b/c of recent wealth in athens due to silver mines) q
- battle of Plataeae 479
- land battle- end of persian war, athens then took over as main greek military power
- Cylon 632
- Athenian that staged a coup b/c didn't like the way athenians gvt. worked, small elite (couple hundred wealthy ppl. ran it.) but him and supporters killed so coup failed
- Draco 621
- aristocrat, came up with first written laws, very harsh wants to minimize political and social upheaval but ands up increasing it
- Solon 594
- Archon- ablished enslavement for debt and greed share droppers. created 4 property classes, not property requirements for citizenship, just had to have dad be a citizen. only opens offices to rich but allows the poor to vote. council of 400 100 ppl from each tribe. he was a political tyrant in a good way. Arkhons from top 2 groups, council 3, and assembly 4. his system was based on wealth. it was a baby step to athenian demo.-gave poor a little voice
- father of democracy. we attrib. dem. to him. still 4 social classes but replaced 4 tribes with 10, composed of demes. solons council of 400-500. each deme gave 1 or more persons to it. creator of ostracism- 6001 votes and you are outta athens for 10 years so thtat nobody becomes too powerful
- pessimisms from old oligarch about athenian demo.
- he was aristocratic external man most likely,
so poor couldn't stand by laws
- US vs. Athenian Demo.
- rep. vs. directvoting is against athenian policy b/c it's unfair and the rich usually win. but 10 generals or strategoi were elected by vote
- athenian demo.
- went from arkhons and areopogas being main bodies to council and assembly.
- max 2 yrs, male 30 yrs old, met every day for a month out of the year to prep for 4 mtgs for that month, also handl city finances
- meet on Pnyx- 1/4 of male pop 40 times a year anybody speaks and scythians forced ppl to go
- Pericles 443
- general elected in 443-429. very active in political issues. proposed building of parthenon and other acropolis structures. gets rid of aereopogas completely
- maybe most scientific historic writer ever. athenian general exiled in 424 b/c lead unsuccessful mission. wrote about pelopponisian war, diff's of sparta and athens famous works is pericles funeral oration. wrote as events occurred unlike herod. also dry writing style no gods or women. viewed human nature as druving force instead of divine forces.
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