Glossary of Ancient Civ- The Beginning of Greek Civilization: Minoans through Athenians

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

Greece is collection of what landforms?
Greece is a collection of lands, islands, and peninsulas.
In what sea is Greece located?
It is in the Mediterranean Sea.
What is Greece's most predominant landform?
Greece's most predominant landform is mountains.
What two key things were difficult on land?
Transportation and communication was difficult on land.
No Greeks lived far away from what?
No Greeks lived far away from teh sea.
Where were the Greek communities?
The Greek communities were in valleys and along the coast.
What type of communities were the settlements?
The settlements were in isolated, independent communities.
Why was a central government not possible?
A central government was not possible because of the rough terrain.
Due to the coast, what were two predominant jobs of the Greeks?
The Greeks were seafarers and traders.
Why was agriculture difficult?
Agrigulture was difficult because they did not have much good land.
What were the three main crops?
The three main crops were grains, grapes, and olives.
What was the diet like?
The diet was light and simple.
What was the climate like in the summer?
The summer climate was hot and dry.
What was the climate like in the winter?
The winter climate was mild and wet.
What kind of activities did the climate permit?
The climate permitted lots of outside activities.
What is the agora?
The agora is the market place.
Where did the men meet?
Men met in the agora, the gymnasium, political meetings, religious festivals, and civic duties.
What did the men meeting contribute to?
The meetings contributed to democracy.
Is it true that most people knew each other?
Yes, most people knew each other.
Participating in the political life was considered what?
It was considered an duty and a virtue.
When was the Minoan civilization?
The Minoan civilization was between 2000-1400 B.C.
Where was the Minoan civilization?
It was on the island of Crete.
What did the Minoans do?
They were seafarers and traders.
What did they think about being attacked?
Minoans thought their island protected them from attacks.
How do Minoans show that life was pleasant?
They show their pleasant life through wall paintings.
Were women equal?
Yes, they are shown doing the same things as men.
Where is their most famous palace?
Their most famous palace is at Knossos.
What shows that they were advancing in technology?
They had plumbing and pipes for water, bathtubs, and flush toilets.
What natural cause theories are there about the end of the Minoans?
They think that there could have been a volcano disaster, an earthquake, or tidal waves.
What other theory is there about the end of Minoans?
Invaders could also have led to the end of Minoans.
When was the Mycenaean civilization?
The Mycenaean civilization was between 2000 and 1200 B.C.
Where was the Mycenaen civilization?
The Mycenaean civilization was on mainland of Greece.
What was the major Mycenaean city?
The major city was Mycenae.
Was the city of Mycenae protected?
Yes, it was a heavily fortified city.
What was the major occupation of the Mycenaean kings?
Their major occupation was to wage war on one another.
What was the Mycenaean civilization made up of?
It was made up of a bunch of small kingdoms.
What was the lifestyle of a Mycenaean king and noble?
Their lifestyle was one of luxuy which included beautiful palaces and gold untensils.
What was the grand thing in a Mycenaean palace?
The great thing was a grand hall with a circular hearth.
What is the grand hall with a circular hearth called?
What were the nobles buried with?
Their treasures
Where did the the king's wealth come from?
Raids, piracy, and some trade
What is the most famous war?
Trojan War
What is the historical reason for the Trojan War?
Trade rivalries
When were Greece's Dark Ages?
1200-750 B.C.
When were the Mycenaeans destroyed?
1200 B.C.
Who do historians think destroyed the Mycenaeans?
The People of the Sea
Who moved into Greece after the Micenaeans?
The Dorians
What was the Dorians "civilized" life like compared the Mycenaeans?
The Dorians were less civilized
Did the Dorians have a form of writing?
What were story tellers called?
What was the job of the bards?
To tell long stories
What were the long stories that the bards told called?
Who is the most famous bard?
We did Homer live?
Sometime between 900-750 B.C.
What are his two most famous epics?
The Iliad and the Odyssey
What is the Iliad about?
It is the story of the Trojan War, especially heroic deeds of individuals
What is the Odyssey about?
It tells about Odysseus adventures on his trip home from the war
What do Homer's heroes eximplify?
What is arete?
Striving for excellence, showing courage, and winning fame and honor
When were the first Olympics?
776 B.C.
When were the Olympics held?
Once every four years
None of what went on during the Olympics?
What are some examples of games?
Discus, wrestling, broad jumping, races, chariot races, and boxing
What was the most respected event?
The Pentathalon
What was the prize for winning the pentathalon/Olympics?
A wreath of olive leaves
How many major Greek gods were there?
Where did the Greek gods live?
Mount Olympus
What are the gods' three main characteristics?
Immortal, powerful, and behaved like humans
What are myths?
They are stories told about the gods that helped to explain nature and human passions.
What was the role like of the priest?
They were not powerful, it was not a lifelong career, it was just one of the civic duties.
What is a polis?
A city-state which includes the city and its surrounding areas
Greece was not a country, but what?
A collection of independent states
What was the largest city-state?
What were four aspects of polis that were essential to a Greek's life?
Residence, social life, religious life, and political life
What was an acropolis?
An acropolis was a fortified hill with meeting places, government buildings, and temples
What did you have to be in order to be a citizen?
A free man
Who could not be citizens?
Women, children, slaves, or foreigners
What was the time period when Mycenaean kings lost their power?
The Dark Ages
What kind of rule followed the Mycenaean kings?
An aristocracy
What is an aristocracy?
A rule by small groups of nobles
What did the nobles do to make them disliked?
They became selfish, taking land from poor farmers and pushing them into debt and and slavery
What did the ordinary people feel towards their rulers?
What made the common people so dangerous?
They had iron weapons
What were hoplites?
They were soldiers that were supposed to arm themselves and be ready to fight
What kind of battle formation did the Greeks fight in?
Who led ordinary people in their fight against the nobles?
After helping the common people overthrow the aristocrats, what did they do?
They took land away from the nobles and gave it to the poor, and they built harbors and temples
What happened to the tyrants overtime?
They became selfish and the Greeks wanted to overthrow them
What kind of state did Sparta develop?
An army state
Where was Sparta?
On the Peloponnesian Peninsula
Who did Sparta enslave?
The native Messonians on the Peninsula
What did Sparta call their slaves?
What did the Helots do that scared the Spartans?
They revolted and almost beat the Spartans
What did Spartans organize their lives around?
Building a strong army
What happened to Spartan boys at age seven?
He would move to the military barracks
What were the military barracks like?
Not enough food, thin clothes, hard beds, and many beatings
What happened at age twenty?
The could get married, in fact they had to get married
Why did Spartan men have to get married?
To produce children for the Spartan army
Where did the Spartan men live at age twenty?
What happened at age 30 to the men?
They could move out of the barracks, and vote, but they were still in the military
What happened at age 60 to the men?
They were finally out of the military
What did girls do in order to have strong babies?
Strenuous gymnastics
Did women have many rights in Sparta?
Although they were not citizens, they had more rights than the women of Athens
Who ran the household?
Were women allowed to be seen in public?
Athens made reforms that led to what?
Who led the first reform and when did he lead it?
Solon in 594 B.C.
What were the three parts of Solon's economic reform?
1) Cancelled debts and freed people enslaved for debts
2) Encouraged growing olives and grapes for trade
3) Asked father to teach their sons a trade
What were the two aspects of Solon's political reforms?
1) Allowed each student to attend assembly in which all important issues were discussed and voted on
2) Any citizen could charge another with a crime
Who is Athens' second reformer?
What two changes did he make to Athens?
1) Gave assembly more power
2) Created the Council of 500
What was the Council of 500?
It proposed laws and advised the assembly
How were people chosen to be on the Council of 500?
By lot
Who conquered the Greek colonies of the coast of Asia Minor?
The Persians
What did the angry colonists do?
They rebelled against the Persians and Athens helped them, the Persians won
What did Persian King Darius do after the rebellion?
He swore revenge on the Greeks, especially the Athenians
When was the First Persian War?
490 B.C.
What did do that started the first Persian War?
He assembled a big army and marched into Greece
Where did the Persians first meet the Greeks?
On a plain called Marathon
Who won the battle at Marathon?
The Greeks with superior fighting techniques
How did the Greeks notify the Athenians of the victory at Marathon?
They sent a runner that ran all 26 miles to Athens
When was the second Persian War?
480 B.C.
Who was the king that assembled a huge army and navy a marched into Greece for the second Persian War?
King Xerxes
What was the disadvantage of the Greeks in the second Persian War?
They were outnumbered and divided
Where did the Persians meet their first resistance?
Who met the Persians at Thermopylae?
Thousands of Greek soldiers and 300 Spartans
How did the battle at Thermopylae go?
The Greeks inflicted terrible losses on the Persians
What happened to change the battle at Thermopylae?
A Greek traitor told the Persians about a way around the pass
When the traitor became known what did the Spartans do?
The Spartans sent the other Greeks ahead and defended the pass until all Spartans were dead
What did Spartan heroism do for Athens?
It encouraged Athenian bravery
What did the Persians do after they defeated the Spartans at the pass?
They advanced towards Athens
Who is Themosticles?
He was the person that divised the plan to save the Athenians
What did Themosticles say to do to the city?
Evacuate the city and leave it to the Persians
What did Athens do with all able-bodied men?
They put them on ships to fight at sea
What was the key difference between Athenian ships and Persian ships?
Athenian ships were small and mobile, while the Persian ships were big and clumsy
What did the Athenians do with their ships to the ships of the Persians to win the battle at sea?
Athenian ships out rowed the Persian ships punching holes them and sinking them
Where was the battle at sea?
In the bay of Salamis
What knowledge also helped the Athenians?
The knowledge of the seas
Who won the battle at sea?
The Greeks
What did Xerxes do after the loss at sea?
He fled leaving behind part of his army
Where did the Spartans later defeat the rest of the Persian army?
What did the Athenians claim after the war?
They claimed major credit for defeating the Persians
What did the Athenians establish after the war?
The Delian League
What is the Delian League?
A league of city-states
Why was the Delian League created?
To defend against future Persian attacks
How did the Athenians get people to join the League?
They used their navy to force other states to join the League
What did Athens do with the money they got from the states in the League?
They used the money to rebuild their city (and fund the navy)
What did this do about the way other states felt about Athens?
It made them dislike Athens

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards