Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology chapter 2 test 1
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- materials that exist within our universe. Things that have an existance and take up space. Made up of elements
- Very basic and pure substance/simple
- What are Atoms and tell me about them
- the smallest functional unit of an element. Comprised of subatomic particles. Has protons neutrons and electrons that work together in a system. The things that define an atom are the AMOUNT of protons neutrons and electrons
- Protons and neutrons are located in the _______.
- Atomic neucleus
- Where are electrons found?
- ouside the atomic neucleus
- Represents electrons, neutrons, or electrons predictable
- Atomic Number: and what it does and why
- Number of protons within the nucleus of an atom. Also indicates the number of electrons because each atom is said to be electronically balanced.
- Atomic Mass
- Number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
- How do you get the number of neutrons?
- By subtracting the number of protons from the atomic mass
- atoms that have the same number of protons, but have different numbers of neutrons or same atomic number and different atomic mass
- Very important to humans. Has six protons and six electrons but different structures of carbon have different atomic mass
- Radio Isotope
- element or isotope that gives off energy
- Molecular Formula
- the formular/composition of a molecule
Does NOT indicate structure
- Molecular formula for glucose?
- C6 H12 O6
- Structural Formula
- shows how atoms and molecules connect to for the molecular formula
- "directions on what's in there"
- Covalent Bonding
- chemical bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
- Ionic Bonding
- Chemical bond resulting from the transfer of electrons
- Explain how an electron distribution works
- First look at the number of protons. Once you know how many protons there are, you know how many electrons there are. Distribute the electrons to the several energy levels.
- What is the order (in #s) for the energy levels in an electron distribution?
- 2 -> 8 -> 18 -> 32
- Non-Reacting Elements
- Do not typically form chemical bonds under the earth's atmosphere due to having 8 electrons in their last energy level or having 2 electrons in their ONLY energy level.
- Name the major non-reacting elements, their atomic number, and give their nick-name
- Helium - 2
Neon - 10
Argon - 18
Krypton - 36
Xenon - 54
Radon - 86
AKA: "Noble Gases"
- The number of electrons the element requires to become more stable. To become more stable, it must have 8 electrons in its outer layer. The number of electrons needed to complete this 8 is known as the valence
- The valence of hydrogen is ___
- The valence of oxygen is ____
- The valence of nitrogen is ____
- The valence of carbon is ____
- Tell me how an ionic bond would happen.
- Step 1: Two atoms with a mutual need for electrons transfer the elctrons to try to become more stable and have 8 electrons in its outer shell.
Step 2: The transfer occurs
Step 3: The positively charged cations and negatively charged anions come together and you get an ionic bond.
- charged atom
- positively charged ion
- Negatively chargerd ion
- Water is held together by ____ covalent bonding.
- Polar covalent bonding
- (water) having opposite charges
- Non-Polar covalent bonding
- (fats oils, and lipids) equal sharing of electrons where both sides are equal (+ to +) or (- to -)
- WHat happens in covalent bonding if one atoms hasmore protons than another?
- that side which is stronger will spend more time with the electrons
- What happens when electrons spend more time with a certain atom?
- the atom begins to become a little more negative
- WHat happens when electrons spend more time on the opposite side of an atom
- It becomes more positive
- anything that has a positive and negative end
- Suffix: -ity
- property of having
- Hydrogen Bond
- holds neighboring water molecules together under the right remperatures and pressures. Heat breaks the hydrogen bond in water molecules and causes it to evaporate. Each hydrogen bond can hold a certain amount of heat before it breaks
- Name the properties of water
heat of vaporization
- What is polarity?
- property of being polar (having positive and negative)
- name two kinds of polarity (in water) and tell their functions
- hydrophillic - property of water attracting something
hydrophobic - property of water not attracting something
- water sticking to water.(surface tension - measure of cohesion)
- water sticking to some other surface. (capillary action)
- Specific Heat
- the ability of water to hold heat
- Heat of vaporization
- amount of energy needed to convert liquid water into vapors
- Tell me about acids and bases
- Acids - something that RELEASES hydrogen ions
Bases - something that ACCEPTS hydrogen ions and contains hydroxl (OH-) ions
- strong acid/weak acid
- strong acid - high number of hydrogen ions released
weak acid - low number of hydrogen ions released
- strong base/weak base
- strong base - accepts greater number of hydrogen ions
weak base - accepts less number of hydrogen ions
- What does a hydroxl ion look like?
- OH- is called a _____________
- Hydroxl ion
- H+ is a ______________
- Hydrogen ion
- What do the letters in PH stand for?
- Population of Hydrogen ions
- what does the PH scale run from and what is the midpoint?
- 0-14 and 7.000 is the midpoint
- What happens when you get closer to 0 on the ph scale?
- the acidity increases
- What happens when you get closer to 14 on the ph scale?
- The alkalinity increases
- what kind of acid resides in the 1.5-2.0 zone
- stomach acid
- What is something with a ph of 7.000?
- Neither an acid nor a base....water
- PH of human blood?
- under optimal conditions 7.4
It is slightly alkaline
Acceptable range is 7.35-7.45
- condition of having too much acid in your blood
- Condition of having too much alkaline (bases) in your bood.
- difference between respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis
- acidosis - too much carbon dioxide in the blook which cannot be removed
alkalosis - low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
- Difference between metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis
- Acidosis - too much acids in the blood
Alkalosis - too little carbon dioxide plasma concentration
- (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) provides us with the bulk of our energy each day.
Helps with cellular respiration
- what is a monosaccaride?
- single sugar - smallest and simplest of sugars
- What is the template for a monosaccharide?
- C1 H2 O1
there will usually be twice as many hydrogen atoms and an equal amount of oxygen atoms as carbon.
- What is a pentose and name the pentoses.
- "free carbon sugar" C5 H10 O5
Ribose and Deoxyribose are pentoses
- What is a hexose and name the hexoses
- "six carbon atom sugar" C6 H12 O6
glucose, fructose, galactose
- (C6 H12 O6) primary source of energy. Brain cells require a continual supply of glucose/dextrose. Primarily produced by plants
- (fruit sugar) goes first to the liver where it is converted into glucose
- (milk) goes into the liver to be converted into glucose
- important to RNA
- important to DNA
- Name all the monosaccharides
- Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Ribose, and Deoxyribose
- Class of sugar that has two monosaccharide sugar molecules joined together
- Name the disaccharides and what they are
- Sucrose - glucose + fructose (sugar cane)
Lactose - glucose + galactose (milk sugar)
Maltose - glucose + glucose (grain sugar)
- Dehydration Synthesis
- is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties react and become covalently bonded to one another by the concurrent loss of a small molecule, usually water
- A chemical reaction that uses water to break down a compound.
- "workers of cells" which put things together and takes them apart within our cells
- Diff between a deoxyribose and a ribose
- a Deoxyribose molecule has one less oxygen than a ribose molecule
- Complex carbohydrates. Many monosaccharides connected togeher using dehydration synthesis. contains energy
- Name the main polysaccharides and their function
- Starch - "stoarage form of glucose in plants"
Glycogen - "storage form of glucose in animals"
Cellulose - Made by plants as a building material
Glycoproteins - found on the surface of red blood cells. important to blood types
- Need carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Group of chemicals, usually fats, that do not dissolve in water.
- Neutral fats
- body fats that arent charged and wont dissolve in water
- Fatty acids and glycerol
- molecules that put together to make a chain of lipids
- Name the three glycerides
- one fatty acid connected to one glycerol molecule
- two fatty acids connected to one glycerol molecule through covalnet bonds
- Three fatty acids connected to one glycerol molecule. Each molecule of body fat is made up of triglycerides
- referring to blood
- In nature there are some ___ different kinds of fatty acids
- Saturated fatty acids
- fatty acids that are loaded or full. Carries the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Tends to come from animal sources
- Hydrocarbons are ___________?
- fuel molecules
- what does an acide group look like?
- one carbon that has a double bond with oxygen and a single bond with OH
- when a fatty acid is not loaded or full. Has room for hydrogen atoms
- Mono Unsaturated
- one double bond in the "fatty section of the unsaturated fatty acid
- many double bonds in the fatty section of the unsaturated fatty acid
- Tras fatty acid
- undergoes a change (trans)
what is this?
- saturated fatty acid
- lipids that contain phophorus and is important to the maup of cell membranes
- leading member of the steroid family that are strictly found in animals
- what is a hexagon shape thingy?
- a ring of carbon atoms
- WHat is a hexgon thingy with a letter O in one of its corners known as?
- 3 six ring carbon rings connected to one five ring carbon. Made from cholesterol. Powerful hormones
- chemical regulator of biological function
- Name the hormones
- Estrogen, Progesterone, testosterone, cortisol
- A steroidal hormone produced in both males and females that has a variety of functions. In women, it is released during menstruation to form a hospitable environment for embryo fertilization and implantation in the womb.
- powerful steroid made from cholesterol important for support of pregnancy
- (anabolic) important to make reproductive functions. Produced by males and females
- hormone that helps the body deal with stress (physical)
- Name the lipid soluable vitamins
- Lipids connected to a protein using a covalent bond. Helps transport materials in the blood
- Name the two kinds of lipoproteins and their functions
- HDL - high density lipoprotein. better to have more because it carries cholesterol to places to be eliminated "healthy H"
LDL - low density lipoprotein. want low quantities "L=lowsy" helps in the retention of cholesterol
- Cholesterol lowering medication. Lowers levels of LDL
- Lip. Fatty like substance found in the nervous system. Very important in conductiveness in nerve cells
- A family of powerful, hormone-like compounds produced in the body from essential fatty acids
- Name two kinds of Eicosanoids and their functions
- Prostaglandins - important to perception of pain
leukotreine - involved with the immune system and white blood cells
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