Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology Test 5
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- What is a multipolar neuron?
- It is the type of neuron that all motor and association neurons are. The cell body is inside the dendrites.
- What is the neuron that receives the impulse?
- The post synaptic neuron.
- What is the resting membrane potential in neurons?
- -70 mV
- What is an impulse?
- An EPSP that reaches or surpasses threshhold.
- Name 3 differences between nerve to nerve and nerve to muscle
- 1. Can synapse at dendrite, cell body, axon hillock, or end bulb.
2. The impulse is not always excitatory.
3. The new impulse affects a small part of the nerve. Local potential.
- What is repolarization?
- When the H gates close (no more sodium coming in) and the potassium ions rush out.
- What is the number of nerves out each side of the spinal cord?
- What are the functions of the cerebellum?
- -Maintains equilibrium, posture & balance.
-Compares intended movement with what is actually happening.
- What are the components of the Autonomic Nervous System?
- The sympathetic (speeds up) and the parasympathetic
- A stimulus from a presynaptic neuron can be ....
- Exitatory or Inhibitory
- Name 2 types of nerve cells
- Name 2 types of channels.
- Chemical channels
- Name 2 types of neuroglial cells found in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- Schwann Cells - make myelin sheath
Satellite Cells - support cell bodies in ganglia
- What is a bipolar neuron?
- It is the type of neuron that is in all the special senses. The cell body is in between the dendrites and the end bulbs.
- What happens when a synapse is end bulb to end bulb?
- The response is inhibitory.
- Name 3 Neurotransmitters.
- What are 2 ion channel gates in a nerve fiber?
- M Gate - closed at rest
H Gate - open at rest
- What is a mixed nerve?
- A Sensory and Motor Nerve together.
- What are 2 things about the midbrain?
- 1. Controls subconcious muscle activity
2. Contains the corpora quadrigemina
(reflex center where the movement of eyes, head and neck in response to visual stimuli)
- What are 3 functions of the nervous system?
- What are 2 areas of the cerebrum?
- Brocas Area - production of speech
Wernickes Area - determines is a sound is speech, music or noise.
- What is a ganglion
- A cluster of cell bodies near the spinal cord.
- Name 4 neoroglial cells found in the Central Nervous System (CNS)
- Astrocytes - form blood brain barrier
Oligodendrocytes - make myelin sheath
Microglial cells - phagocytes eat up bad stuff
Epidymal cells - secrete cerebrospinal fluid
- What is a nerve fiber?
- The Axon and its Connective Tissue (CT) wrappings. Not the cell body.
- What is the neuron that sends an impulse?
- A presynaptic neuron.
- What is the electrical threshhold of a nerve cell?
- -55 mV
- What happens in a nonmyelinated nerve?
- There is continuous conduction. The same process all the way down the axon.
- What is hyperpolarization?
- When the electrical charge goes below -70mV.
- What happens in Parkinson's Disease?
- The neurons in the midbrain are degenerated.
- What is the function of the pons.
- Bridge that connects various parts of the brain.
- What are 2 major Descending Tracts?
- Pyramidal Pathway-voluntary muscles movement.
Extra Pyramidal Pathway - programmed autonomic movements coordinate body movements with visual stimuli.
- Name 3 types of neuronal circuits
- Simple Series Circuit-1 pre, 1 post
Diverging Circuit-1 pre, many post
Converging Circuit-many pre, one post
- What are 3 things that protect the brain?
- The skull, the meninges, the cerebrospinal fluid.
- Name 2 functions of the spinal cord
- 1. Highway of ascending and descending tracts
- What are the components of the PNS
- The Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System
- What is a nerve?
- A bundle of many nerve cell fibers that run along the same path in the PNS.
- Where do all the impulses gather to be totalled?
- At the trigger zone.
- What is the relative refractory period?
- An stimulus can generate a second action potential but only with a suprathreshhold stimulus. (more than -55 mV)
- What is an IPSP?
- An Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential (negative total)
- Name 2 things about the thalmus
- Relay station for sensory impulses.
Acquisition of knowledge.
- What are 5 functions of the medulla?
- 1.Receives info from cranial nerves.
2.Regulates force & rate of heartbeat
3.Adjusts rythm of breathing
4.Coordinates swallowing, sneezing, coughing, vomiting.
5.Contains pyramids where nerves cross over.
- Name 2 types of ascending tracts.
- Spinothalmic Tract-sensory info, pain, temp, deep pressure.
Posterior Column Tract-sensory info w/awareness of movement, discriminative touch, 2 point discrimination.
- What is the CNS
- Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
- What are 7 functions of the hypothalamus?
- 1.major regulator of homeostasis in body
2.controls the ANS (Symp and Parasymp)
4.contains hunger & thirst centers
5.controls body temperature
6.regulates different states of consciousness.
7.controls the pituitary gland (growth&reproduction.)
- Where is the blood brain barrier located?
- Between the cerebrospinal fluid and the capillaries.
- Where do sensory nerves go into the spinal cord?
- In the dorsal root ganglion.
- What is a unipolar neuron?
- It is the type of neuron that all sensory neurons are like. The cell body is away from the dendrites at the ganglion.
- What 4 places can a nerve synapse?
- Cell body
The next end bulb
- What is summation?
- Adding up the local potentials in the trigger zone.
- What is the absolute refractory period?
- There is no membrane potential and no impulse.
- What happens in a myelinated axon?
- There is saltatory conduction. The impulse jumps over the schwann cells to the nodes of Ranvier.
- Pineal Gland
- Secretes hormone called melatonin
- What are the 3 layers of Connective Tissue (CT) around nerves.
- Endoneurium - surronds each axon.
Perineurium - around fascicles.
Epineurium - around whole nerve.
- Where is the cerebrospinal fluid located?
- In the subarachnoid space.
- What is the PNS?
- Peripheral Nervous System
All other nerves in the body.
- What is the blood brain barrier made of?
- Where do motor nerves exit the spinal cord?
- In the ventral root.
- What does polarized mean?
- A cell that has membrane potential.
- When do the H gates close?
- at 30 mV
- What is an EPSP?
- An Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential (positive total)
- What are the 4 parts of the diencephalon?
- What are the 5 components of the Reflex Arc?
- 1.Receptor - sensory neurons
2.Info taken to spinal cord
Monosynaptic or Polysynaptic
5.Effector responds appropriately.
- What are the 3 layers of the meninges?
- Dura Mater (outside)
Pia Mater (inside)
- What are 2 functions of the cerebrum?
- 1. Memory
2. Processing specific types of sensory integration and motor signals.
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