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Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology Marieb Test 1

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How does the base sequence of DNA match up to base sequence mRNA?
Adenine (A) bonds to Thymine (T)
Guanine (G) bonds to Cytosine (C)
-with RNA it doesn’t have T it has Uramine
What is the difference in Primary, secondary, tertiary and Quaternary Structure of Proteins
Primary (sequence of amino acids Secondary (achieved when the alpha helix of the beta pleated sheet fold upon themselves) Tertiary (overall three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide)and Quaternary (two or more polypeptide chains aggregate in a regular manner to form a complex protein)
Are all proteins enzymes?
No
Are all enzymes proteins?
Yes
Do enzymes catalyze specific chemical reactions?
Yes
What is Rough ER involved in?
It has the cell’s “membrane factory” creating the proteins and phospholipids that make up the membrane,
When a cell has lost it’s centrioles can it divide?
No because Centriole are necessary for cell division
What is the Golgi Bodies nickname?
Packaging center
Stage of mitosis when the centromeres split:
Anaphase
What are Cell membranes made out of?
Phospholipids and globular proteins
What is the pH level of a strong acid?
It has a low pH
What is cell respiration?
The way to use nutrients and oxygen to provide energy (ATP)
The preferred source of energy for cellular respiration is carbohydrates because they break down easy
Name 4 types of cell reactions.
Anabolic or Synthesis Reaction: joining together
Catabolic or Decomposition: broken down
Exchange (displacement): both
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: decomposition reactions where food is broken down
ADP + P  ATP what type of reaction is this?
Does it require energy to occur?
Anabolic and yes it does
Where is the Chemical information of DNA found?
In the sequence of the codes
What is a codon?
A three base sequence of mRNA that corresponds to the DNA, it will create stopping and starting combinations
What is phagocytosis?
Engulfing of foreign things in the body (White Blood cells)
What is Syncytium:
multinucleated cells
What is not true about the plasma membrane?
Glycolipids are on the inside (they aren’t, they are found on the outside of the membrane)
Can fat soluble molecules go through a plasma membrane?
Yes, they don’t even need to bypass the lipid layer, because they are fats
Where are Intergrual Proteins are found?
Inserted in the bilayer of the plasma membrane
Do some proteins act as chemical messengers for hormones?
Yes
Can glycoproteins and glycocalyx act to bind the epithelium together?
Yes
What has a glycocalyx?
Female eggs
Are desmosomes found in the skin and heart muscle?
YES they are found in tissues subject to great mechanical stress.
Where are gap junctions found?
In electrically excited tissues like the heart and smooth muscle
Are tight junctions permeable?
NO it forms a impermeable junction that encircles the cell
Do microvilli have a core of adipose filaments?
NO
Membranous sacs containing a variety of powerful enzymes, the most important being oxidase and catalase
Peroxisomes:
The “demolition crew,” spherical membranous organelles containing digestive enzymes
-very large and abundant in phagocytes, the cells that dispose of invading bacteria and cell debris
-work best in acidic conditions
Lysosomes:
small, dark staining granules composed of protein and a variety of RNA called ribosomal RNA (pg. 87)
-have two globular units that fit together (like an acorn)
-some float freely in cytoplasm (function is to make soluble proteins) while others
Ribosomes:
the largest of the hollow tubes made of spherical protein subunits called tubulins
-stiff but slightly bendable that determine the overall shape of the cell and the distribution of the organelles in the cell
Microtubules:
What is the difference in Active Transport vs. Passive Transport?
Passive Transport: when substances move across the membrane without any energy input from the cell, two main types are diffusion and filtration
-Diffusion: tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly throughout the environment (pg. 71)
-Filtration: the process that forces water and solutes through a membrane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure
Active Transport: whenever the cell uses the bond energy of ATP to move solutes across a membrane
-similar to facilitated diffusion because they both require carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with the transport substances (pg. 75)
-active transport moves against the concentration gradient
Are basement membranes found under all tissue types?
No, Just epithelium
What is Catabolism?
Breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks
What is Anabolism?
Synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler ones
Catalysts do what to the rate of chemical reactions?
Increase it
Can benign neoplasms metastasize to distant tissues?
No
What percentage of cancer is found to have oncogenes?
20%
What is a carcinogen?
Cancer causer that makes the cells rapidly reproduce themselves/ examples: physical trauma (radiation, mechanical trauma), certain viral infections, and many chemicals (tobacco, saccharine, some natural food chemicals)
What do proto-oncogenes do?
A proto-oncogene is a gene whose protein product has the capacity to induce cellular transformation given it sustains some genetic insult. An oncogene is a gene that has sustained some genetic damage and, therefore, produces a protein capable of cellular transformation.
If the pH of urine goes from 6.5 to 4.5 is there an increase or decrease in hydrogen ions?
INCREASE, it also increase in acidity
What is an Ion?
Charged particles, created when an electron is transferred from one atom to another and the balance of + and – charges is lost
What is an Ionic Bond?
Ionic Bond: a chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other
What is an Anion?
When the atom gains the electrons and forms a – charge
What is a Cation?
The atom that loses the electron and forms a + charge
A six year old with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea comes into the hospital. What has happened to their cells?
Their tissues are dehydrated, so they pull the water and fluids out the cells.
Osmosis: diffusion of a solvent, water, through a selectively permeable membrane
What would happen to one red blood cell in a tube with pure distilled water?
The water would go into the cell, making it explode.
When do chemical reactions happen more quickly?
In higher temperatures
What is Endothelium?
Endothelium: a type of simple squamous epithelium that lines the blood vessels
In what tissues are blood vessels not found?
Cartilage and epithelium, this is called avascular
What are tendons and ligaments made out of?
Dense regular connective tissue
What are Holocrine Glands?
Glands that accumulate their products till they explode
When the body starys the same, for every change the body attempts a reverse reaction to maintain the same parameters
Homeostasis
What is the process of forming blood clots?
Hemostasis
______are called suicide sacs
Lysosomes
Only epithelia tissue that streches
Transitional
What is the study of structures in a particular area of the body like adomen or brain?
Regional Anatomy
What is the study of anatomy based om systems, such as cardiovascular or endocrine?
Systemic anatomy
What is how internal sturctures relate to the overlying skin?
Surface anatomy
This study includes cytology and histology
Microscopic anatomy
What is the study of changes in body growth?
Developmental anatomy
What is the study of the fomation of the newborn
Embryology
What is the study of changes caused by disease?
Pathologic anatomy
What is the study of structures seen by xray?
Radiographic anatomy
What is the study of biology at the smallest level
Molecular biology
What are the 4 main tissue types?
Connective, Epithelial, muscle and nervous
Heterogeneous mixtures that ofter appear translucent or milky
Colloids or emulsions
Chief difference between a mixture and a compound?
There is no chemical bonding in a mixture
When atoms or molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule the process is a ?
Synthesis or combination reaction A+B=AB
When a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms
decompostion reaction AB=A+B
Reactions that involve both synthesis and decompostion reactions are called?
Exchange or displacement reactions
Decompostion reactions which are the basis of all reactions in which food fuels are catabolized for energy (ATP produced)
Oxidation-reduction reactions or redox reactions
What is the bodies normal pH range?
7.35-7.45
The cell type that secretes the matrix of areolar tissues is called a?
Fibroblast
All connective tissue arise from an embryonic tissue called
mesenchyme
This tissue is froun in tendons, and ligaments contains mosly collagen fibers cells are mostly fibroblasts
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
This structure is made of karatinized stratified spuamous epithelium
Epidermis
Three primary layers in embryonic development
ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm
Muscle and connective tissue develop from what embryonic tissue?
Mesoderm
Beign forms of oncogenes in normal cells that code for proteins that are used for cell division, growth, and adhesion
Proto-oncogenes
This layer of the epidermis has 3-5 cell layers in which keratinocyte appearance changes drastically and they are dying
Stratum Granulosum
The reticular layer of the dermis is made of
dense irregular connective tissue
Mounds found on the palms and soles whcih case the epidermis to form Epidermal ridges
Dermal ridges
fingerprints are?
epidermal ridges
The white cresent that lies over the thick nail matrix is called the
Lunula
What are the two types of sweat glands?
eccrine and apocrine
Oil glands found all over EXCEPT palms and soles of feet
Sebaceous Glands
Sebaceous glands are a type of
Holocrine gland
The central core of the hair shaft is called the
medulla
An anchoring junction, mechanical coupling scattered like rivets on the sides of the abutting cells (zipper)
A desmosome
This is a communication junction that allow chemical substances to pass between adjacent cells, connecting the cells by hollow cylinders called connexons
A gap junction
Tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells, increasing the plasma membrane surface and increasing surface area for absorption
Microvilli
A molecular oxygen to detoxify harmful substances (alcohol or formaldehyde), MOST important function is to neutralize dangerous free radicals (highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble the structure of biological molecules)
Oxidase:
Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration where protection is not importnat; secretes lubricatin substances in serosae
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Found in Kidney corpuscles; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart; blood vessels; and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Secretion and absorption
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surgace
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Absorption; secretion of mucus; enzymes and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reporductive cells) by ciliary action
Simple columnar epithelium
Nociliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gall bladder and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi uterine tubes and the uterus
Simple columnar epithelium
Single layer of cells of differing heights all touching the basement membrane
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Secretion, particulary of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Nonciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Protection; secretion
Stratified columnar Epithelium
Rare in the body; small amounts in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands
Stratified columnar Epithelium
Protection
Stratified cuboidal Epithelium
Largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands
Stratified cuboidal Epithelium
Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine
Transitional Epithelium
Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra
Transitional Epithelium
Gives rise to all other connective tissue types
Mesenchyme
Primarily in embryo
mesenchyme
Wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; plays important role in inflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid
Loose connective tissue Areolar connective tissue
Widely distributed under epithelia of body, e.g. forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries
Loose connective tissue Areolar connective tissue
Provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs
Loose connective tissue Adipose tissue
Under skin; around kidneys and eyeballs; withing abdomen; in breasts.
Loose connective tissue Adipose tissue
Fibers form a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types
Loose connective tissue Reticular connective tissue
Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes; bone marrow; and spleen
Loose connective tissue Reticular connective tissue
Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength
Dense irregular connective tissue
Major cell type is fibroblast
Dense irregular connective tissue
Dermis of skin; submucosa of digestive tract; fibrous capsules of organs and of joints
Dense irregular connective tissue
Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses
Dense regular connective tissue
Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction.
Dense regular connective tissue
Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an impercepitble network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lucunae
Hyaline cartilage
Supports and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress
Hyaline cartilage
Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx
Hyaline cartilage
Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
Elastic cartilage
Supports the external ear (pinna); epigiottis
Elastic cartilage
Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
Fibrocartilage
intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint
Fibrocartilage
Bone supports and protects (by enclosing); provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)
Bone
Contained within blood vessels
blood
Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances
blood
Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors (muscles and glands) which control their activity
Nervous Tissue
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Nervous tissue
Voluntary movement; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expression; voluntary control
Skeletal muscle
Muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin
Skeletal muscle
As it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control
Cardiac muscle
Has intercalated discs, branching of cells and striations
Cardiac muscle
Proples substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby, blood) along internal passageways; involuntary control
Smooth Muscle
Mostly in the walls of hollow organs
Smooth Muscle
A protein that expands the width of the cell membrane
Transmembrane protein
The majority of ATP is produced in?
The Mitochondria
Part of the nerve cell that transports electrical signals
Axion
Scar tissue is mainly made up of
Dense irregular connective tissue
The most common type of cell in connective tissue is
Fibroblast
The second most common type of cell in connective tissue is
Adipose
Dense Regular connective tissue is also called?
Fibirous connective
Predominant element of dense regular is
fibers
The thickness of the plasma membrane is?
7-10nm
In the fluid mosaic model what floats forming a constantly changing pattern?
proteins
Two types of proteins in cell membrane
Intergral and peripheral
These cells consume lots of energy in the body contributing to body wasting and weight loss
Cancer cells
What are the three types of Membranes in the body?
Cutaneous, Mucous, Serous
What is the membrane lining surrounding the lungs?
pleura
What is the membrane lining the abdomen?
Peritoneum
What is the membrane surrounding the heart?
Pericardial
This is made of stratified squamous epithelium firmly attached to a thick layer of dense irregular connective tissue. it is a dry membrane
Cutaneous
They line the body cavities that open to the exterior, usually has stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelia
Mucous or Mucosa
Moist membranes found in the closed ventral body cavities, made of simple squamous epithelium
Serous membranes
Tissues that are constantly dividing are most prone to?
Cancers
a broad flat sheet of dense fibrous collagenous connective tissue that covers, invests, and forms the terminations and attachments of various muscles
Aponeurosis
These are cells located in the cell membrane thought to be a communication cell
Lipid Rafts
Polar
Hydrophillic
Non Polar
Hydrophobic
What are liposomes?
hollow microscopic sacs formed of phospholipids that can be filled with a variety of drugs. serve as multipurpose vehicles for drugs, genetic material, and cosmetics

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