Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology II
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- What kind of cells divide in Meiosis II
- secondary spermatocytes
- What is the primary difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
- Spermatogenesis takes place all the time, oogenesis takes a long time
- What are the functions of the seminal vesicle
- secrete alkaline - to neutralize vagina
secrete fructose - energy source
secrete clotting proteins - to clump
secrete prostaglandins - motility, viability
- What causes ejaculation
- Motor neurons cause skeletal muscle to contract rhythmically. Semen is forced out.
- What must bind to the sertoli cells to activate them
- Is the reproductive system necessary for a human to live?
- What are the major male reproductive organs
Series of Ducts
- What are 3 male reproductive ducts?
- Epididymis, vas deferens, urethra
- What are 3 male reproductive accessory glands?
- Seminal Vesicles
- What is the irregular ridge on the midline of the scrotum?
- What is the muscle surrounding the scrotum?
- Dartos Muscle
- What is the muscle that surrounds the vas deferens?
- Cremaster Muscle
- What type of gland are the testes?
- Exocrine and Endocrine
- What does the exocrine portion of the testes make?
- What does the endocrine part of the testes produce?
- What is the outer layer of CT on the scrotum?
- Tunica Vaginalis
- What is the inner layer of CT on the scrotum?
- Tunica Albuginea
- What is the site of sperm development?
- Seminiferous Tubules
- What type of cells in the testes make testosterone?
- Leydig Cells
- What type of cells line the walls of the seminiferous tubules?
- Sertoli Cells
- What is the space called inside the seminiferous tubules?
- What type of junction is between the Sertoli cells?
- Tight Junction
- What purpose do the tight junctions serve?
- They form a blood testes barrier. If blood gets mixed with the sperm, the blood cells will kill the sperm.
- What are the very basic sperm cells called?
- Germ cells or Spermatogonia
- What is the first division called in meiosis?
- Reduction Division
- What is the second division in meiosis called?
- Equational Division
- What does a spermatogonia produce when it undergoes mitosis?
- One spermatogonia and one primary spermatocyte
- What does the primary spermatocyte produce when it undergoes meiosis?
- 2 Secondary Spermatocytes.
- What do the secondary spermatocytes produce
- 2 spermatids (each)
- What is the function of the Sertoli Cells?
- They nourish the immature sperm cells while they are developing.
- What are the final steps in a spermatid becoming a sperm?
- The spermatid gets a acrosome (cap) and a tail for motility.
- What is the very basic female sex cell called?
- What results from the mitosis of an oogonia?
- A Primary Oocyte
- What results from the meiosis of an oocyte?
- A secondary oocyte and a polar body
- What results from the meiosis of a secondary oocyte?
- A mature oocyte and a 2nd polar body.
- What hormone is produced by the Leydig cells?
- What are the 3 columns of erectile tissue on the penis?
- 2 Corpora Cavernosa (dorsal)
1 Corpora Spongeosa (ventral)
- What does the bulbourethral gland secrete?
- An alkaline substance that cleans the urethra from urine.
- What system causes ejaculation?
- The somatic motor neurons cause skeletal muscles to contract rhythmically.
- What 3 things regulate male sex hormones?
- Hypothalamus, Anterior Pituitary, and Testes
- What are immature male germ cells called
- What do leydig cells do the in the testes
- make and secrete testosterone
- Where are male sex hormones regulated
- What are the 3 parts of the uterus
- Fundus, body, cervix
- How many oogonia does a fetus in the 4th prenatal month have
- 2-5 million
- What is mechanical digestion
- chewing, kneading, mixing (peristalsis)
- What is another name for Meiosis I
- Reduction division
- Where is the site of spermatogenesis
- Seminiferous tubules
- Where does sperm do its final maturing
- epididymis (or fallopian tube)
- What are the functions of the bulbourethral (Cowpers) Gland
- secretes alkaline substance during sexual arousal to clean urine from the urethra
- Releasing and inhibiting factors are made at puberty in the....
- What are some male reproductive problems
- Undescended testicle
Prostate Cancer - young - aggressive treatment - old - no treatment
Testicular Tortion - male emergency - may lose testicle
- What tissue covers the ovaries
- Ovarian epithelium
- What are the 3 layers of the uterus
- How many oogonia does a female have at birth
- 2 million and they have begun meiosis I
- What is chemical digestion
- Enzymes are secreted and break down large molecules into small ones
- What are the 4 layers of the digestive tract
- What are the 2 shapes of muscle in the muscularis
- What is the serous membrane that covers organs
- visceral peritoneum
- What papillae are located on the anterior 2/3 of tongue with no taste buds
- Filiform Papillae
- What is another name for Meiosis II
- Equational division
- What is the exocrine part of the testes
- produces sperm
- What is the sperm storage area
- What causes erection
- PNS causes the smooth muscle in the arteris to relax and expand with blood
- What male hormone controls the release of FSH and LH
- What is cripticordism
- undescended testicle
- What tissue is below the ovarian epithelium in the ovaries
- Tunica Albuginea
- What is the purpose of the vagina
- Female organ of copulation
- What are the 2 parts of the digestive system
- Gastrointestinal tract
- What kind of cells divide in Meiosis I
- Primary spermatocytes
- What is the endocrine part of the testes
- produces testosterone
- What is the name of the duct where sperm goes and fluid is added from the seminal vesicle
- Ejaculatory duct
- What causes emission
- Sympathetic NS causes emission.
Seminal fluid from the prostate, seminal vesicle, and sperm accumulates and dumps into the prostatic urethra
- LH binds to _________ cells to cause an increased rate of spermatogenesis
- leydig cells
- What muscle attaches the uterus to the abdominal wall
- Broad ligament
- What are the fingerlike structures on the end of the fallopian tubes
- What is the hymen
- a thin mucous membrane covering the vaginal opening
- What is the major function of the digestive system
- To break down food particles into molecules small enough to cross cell membranes
- What is absorption
- Passage of digested food molecules into blood and lymph
- What is special about the submucosa layer
- Contains the plexis of meissner - neurons that cause mucous to be released
- What is the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
- Parietal peritoneum
- What is ascitis
- abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal space
- What papilla are distributed among the filiform papillae and have taste buds
- fungiform papilla
- What papillae form an inverted V on the back of the tonge and have taste buds
- Circumvillate papillae
- What enzyme in the mouth breaks down fats or lipids
- lingual lipase
- What enzyme in the mouth breaks down carbohydrates
- What is the function of salivary amalyse
- breaks down carbohydrates
- What are the functions of saliva
- moistens, breaks down food, keeps mouth clean, aids in talking
- What is saliva composed of
- 99.5% water
- What is the name of the opening where the esophagus pierces through the diaphragm
- esophageal hiatus
- What is a hiatal hernia
- a problem where the stomach pushes up into the chest cavity
- What is the functions of the esophagus
- get food from the mouth to stomach
- What is the function of the stomach
- a mixing organ
- What is the name of the sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach
- cardiac sphincter
- What is the name of the sphincter between the stomach and the duodenum
- Pyloric sphincter
- What are the folds in the lining of the stomach
- What is the mashed up food called
- What are the 2 types of cells in the stomach
- Chief cells
- What do parietal cells do in the stomach
- secrete HCl
- What do chief cells secrete
- Pepsinogen - which combines with HCl to make pepsin - which breaks down proteins
- What does gastric lipase do
- breaks down fats (lipids)
- What is the duct called that goes from the pancreas to the duodenum
- Duct of Wirsung
- What is the exocrine part of the pancreas
- Acini cells secrete pancreatic juice
- What is the endocrine function of the pancreas
- islets of langerhans make and secrete insulin and glucagons
- What is the pancreatic juice made of
- water, salts, sodium bicarbonate, enzymes
- What pancreatic enzyme breaks down carbs
- pancreatic amylase
- What pancreatic enzyme breaks down rna
- What pancreatic enzyme breaks down dna
- What pancreatic enzyme breaks down lipids
- Pancreatic lipase
- Where is enterokynase made
- in the small intestine
- What combines with enterokinase to make trypsin
- What is the most important organ in the digestive system
- What is the function of the liver - post absorption
- Sorts out nutrients and detoxifies the blood
- What are the 3 things that make up the portal triad
- bile duct
hepatic portal vein
- What is the function of the kupffer cells
breaks down rbc's and wbc's
rbc's = iron, globin, bilirubin
- what problem is caused by an underdeveloped liver
- What is the main function of the large intestine
- fluid balance
- What are the divisions of the large intestine called
- What type of digestion occurs in the large intestine
- Haustral churning
- What is an enzyme produced in the stomach
- What is the action of Gastrin
- promotes the secretion of gastric juice
- What is the function of Gastric Inhibitory peptide
- Produced in response to fatty acids and glucose. Stimulates the release of insulin to break down glucose
- What is the function of secretin
- stimulates the pancreas to make and dump pancreatic juice into the small intestine
- What is the function of cholecystokinin
- Causes ejection of bile
- Where is estrogen produced
- Granulosa cells
- What is the function of Progesterone
- Thickens the endometrium for implantation
Prepared mammary glands to sedrete milk
Helps prevent uterine contractions
- What is the function of Inhibin
- Inhibits FSH
- What are 4 female hormones
- What occurs during capacition
- Sperm changes
membrane around acrosomal cap becomes fragile
sperm releases several enzymes
- What enzymes are released during capacitation to breakdown the corona radiata and zona pelucida
- hyaluronic acid
- What is the zygote called on day 3
- What is the zygote called on day 5
- What are the 3 layers of the embryoblast
- Ectoderm - nervous tissue
Mesoderm - bones and muscles
Endoderm - digestive tract, epithelial
- What are the 4 membranes around the embryo
- Yolk sac
- What is the function of the yolk sac
- contains blood stem cells, germ cells for male and female
- What is the function of the chorion
- The fetal part of the placenta
- What is the function of the alantois
- It is an extension of the fetal urinary bladder
- What are the structures that are found in the maternal and fetal placenta that transfer material from mother to baby
- Chorionic villa
- What are 4 female problems
- Ectopic pregnancy
Sexually transmitted disease
Toxic Shock Syndrome
- What is the main thing that happens with sexually transmitted disease
- Causes scarring of the fallopian tubes -woman can't get pregnant.
- What is the first phase of the menstrual cycle
- The menstrual phase
- What is happening during the menstrual phase in the ovaries
- decreasing levels of estrogen and progesterone stimulates the release of GnRH which stimulates the relase of FSH and LH
- What does FSH do in the female
- Initiates the conversion of several primordial follicles into primary follicles
- What is the capsule that is formed around the secondary follicle
- What is a primordial follicle
- A primary oocyte surrounded by one layer of granulosa cells
- How many primordial follicles does a woman in puberty have
- What is the second phase of the Menstrual cycle
- The Preovulatory Phase Days 5-13
- What occurs in the uterus during the preovulatory phase
- Under the influence of FSH, the endometrium is repaired.
- What occurs during the preovulatory phase in the ovaries
- Secondary follicles enlarge and the fluid filled vesicles fuse into a large antrum
- During the preovulatory phase the follicle is referred to as a
- Graaphian Follicle
- When does the primary oocyte complete meiosis I
- Just before ovulation
- What is the phase of the menstrual cycle at days 15-28
- Post ovulatory
- What occurs in the ovary during post ovulatory phase
- The graafian follicle and thecal cells become the corpus luteum
Meiosis II is completed
- What happens to the corpus luteum if pregnancy occurs
- The corpus luteum enlarges and keeps secreting progesterone
- What happens in the uterus during the post ovulatory phase
- Progesterone and estrogen promote the growth of endometrial glands which results in the thickening of the endometrium in preparation for implantation
- What happens in the uterus if no pregnancy occurs
- The decreasing levels of progesterone and estrogen cause uterine arteries to constrict and the endometrium is sloughed off again.
- What happens to the corpus luteum if pregnancy does not occur?
- It degenerates to form the corpus albicans
- What 4 pancreatic enzymes break down proteins hint: CCET
- What are 3 hormones produced in the small intestine
- Gastric Inhibitory Peptide
- What are 3 main differences between a primary follicle and primordial follicle
- Primary follicle is larger
PF has zona pellucida
PF has several layers of granulosa
- What are 4 functions of testosterone in the male?
- Development of male rep. structures
Maintenance of sperm cell production
Influences male behavior
- What are 6 functions of hepatocytes
- carb metabolism
remove drugs and hormones
activation of vitamin D
- What are the 3 layers of a blastocyst
- Trophoblast - becomes placenta
Embryoblast - becomes embryo
Blastocele - fluid filled area
- What are the 3 sublayers of the mucosa?
- epithelial layer - protect, secrete
lamina propria - areolar ct, macrophages
muscular mucosa - muscle layer, cause folds
- What are the 4 secretions of the Seminal Vesicle?
- Alkaline fluid-neutralize acid in vagina.
Clotting proteins-for clumping
Prostaglandins - sperm motility
- What 2 changes after the sperm enters the egg
- the oocyte completes meiosis II
the zona pelucida changes to prevent more sperm from entering
- What does FSH stimulate in the female
- The secretion of estrogen from the growing follicles
- What does FSH do in the male?
- Binds Sertoli cells and causes an increased rate of spermatogenesis.
- What does LH do in the female
- Stimulates the primary follicles to develop into secondary follicles
- What does LH do in the male?
- Binds the leydig cells and increases testosterone synthesis.
- What does estrogen do in the female?
- inhibits the release of GnRH
- What does inhibin do in males?
- It's made by the sertoli cells and blocks secretion of FSH (when the ampulla is full)
- What does the prostate gland secrete?
- Milky alkaline fluid w/ fructose, clotting proteins
- What is the function of relaxin in females
- relaxes the uterin muscles
relaxes pubic symphysis
allows cervix to relax and dilate
- What is the path of the sperm from testes to penis?
Hint: 6 parts
- Seminiferous tubules
- What system controls Emission?
- The SNS
- What system controls erection?
- PNS causes arteries to relax and fill with blood.
- Where is inhibin made in the male
- Sertoli cells
- Where is relaxin made in the female
- Corpus Luteum
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